2023 WAEC Geography Essay, OBJ & Practical Answers [2nd June]
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WAEC May/June 2023 FREE GEOGRAPHY QUESTION AND ANSWER ROOM [School Candidates]

Friday, 2nd June, 2023
Geography 2 (Essay) – 09:30am – 11:30am
Geography 1 (Objective) – 11:30am – 12:30pm
Geography 3 (Practical and Physical Geography) 3:00pm – 4:50pm

2023 WAEC GEOGRAPHY PRACTICAL & PHYSICAL ANSWERS




(4ai)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Rugged topography
(ii) Absence of surface drainage
(iii) Depression of varying sizes an d depths
(iv) Cliffs
(v) Karst springs
(vi) Tower karsts
(vii) Limestone pavements


(4aii)
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Cave systems
(ii) Underground Lakes and Springs
(iii) Sinkholes
(iv) Stalactites and stalagmites
(v) Tunnel systems
(vi) Underground waterfalls

(4b)
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Rich in Mineral Resources: Limestone regions are often abundant in mineral resources. Limestone itself is a valuable rock used in construction, agriculture, and industry. Limestone regions may contain deposits of other minerals such as coal, iron, zinc, and phosphates, which contribute to economic development.

(ii) Fertile Soil: Limestone weathering over time produces fertile soil with high calcium carbonate content. This type of soil is ideal for agriculture, as it provides essential nutrients and helps maintain soil pH levels. Limestone regions often support productive farmland and vibrant ecosystems.

(iii) Water Storage and Supply: Limestone is highly permeable, allowing water to pass through and form underground aquifers. These aquifers act as natural reservoirs, storing water and ensuring a reliable water supply in limestone regions. The porous nature of limestone also facilitates groundwater recharge and reduces surface water runoff, contributing to sustainable water management.

(iv) Scientific exploration: Limestone regions are known for their unique karst landscapes, characterized by sinkholes, underground rivers, and caves. These features provide opportunities for scientific exploration and serves as natural habitats for specialized flora and fauna.

(v) Flood mitigation: Karst systems which is limestone regions are characterised by, can help regulate water flow and mitigate flooding by absorbing excess water during heavy rainfall.

(vi) Tourism and Recreation: Limestone regions often attract tourists due to their scenic beauty and unique geological formations. Caves, cliffs, and underground rivers offer opportunities for activities like cave exploration, rock climbing, hiking, and boating.

(vii) Employment opportunites: Tourism in limestone regions can stimulate local economies, create jobs, and foster environmental awareness and conservation efforts.

(viii) Building Material: Limestone has been used as a building material for centuries. Its durability, aesthetic appeal, and availability make it a preferred choice for constructing structures, monuments, and architectural landmarks. Limestone regions often have an abundant supply of this versatile rock, making it easily accessible for construction purposes

 

(6a)
(PICK ANY ONE)
Climate refers to the long-term average weather conditions of a particular region or area. It is determined by various factors such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind patterns, and atmospheric pressure, which persist over a significant period, typically for several decades or more.

OR

Climate can be described as the long-term atmospheric conditions, including temperature, precipitation, wind, and humidity, that are characteristic of a specific region or area. It represents the average weather patterns observed over an extended period, typically spanning decades or more.

OR

Climate refers to the long-term average weather patterns observed in a particular region or on a global scale.

(6b)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Solar radiation
(ii) Atmospheric composition
(iii) Ocean currents
(iv) Land and water distribution
(v) Altitude and topography
(vi) Greenhouse gases
(vii) Aerosols
(viii) Earth's orbit and axial tilt
(ix) Volcanic activity
(x) Human activities

(6c)
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) High Temperature: Equatorial regions experience consistently high temperatures throughout the year. Average temperatures range between 25 to 30 degrees Celsius (77 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit). There is minimal seasonal variation in temperature, and it remains relatively constant year-round.

(ii) High Precipitation: Equatorial regions receive abundant rainfall, resulting in a high level of precipitation. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, with no distinct dry season.

(iii) High Humidity: Equatorial climates are characterized by high humidity levels. The combination of high temperatures and abundant rainfall leads to a significant amount of moisture in the air. Relative humidity often exceeds 80%, creating a warm and moist environment.

(iv) Dense Vegetation: The equatorial climate fosters the growth of lush and diverse vegetation, including tropical rainforests. The consistent warmth, ample rainfall, and high humidity provide ideal conditions for the growth of a wide variety of plant species. The dense vegetation contributes to the rich biodiversity found in equatorial regions.

(v) High Evaporation and transpiration: Due to the high temperatures and abundant moisture, equatorial regions experience significant evapotranspiration. Evapotranspiration refers to the combined process of water evaporation from the surface and transpiration from plants. The warm climate and ample water supply promote this process, leading to high levels of water vapor in the atmosphere.

(vi) Low Pressure and Convectional Rainfall: Equatorial climates are characterized by low atmospheric pressure. The intense solar radiation at the equator causes air to rise rapidly, leading to the formation of low-pressure areas. As the warm air ascends, it cools and condenses, resulting in heavy convectional rainfall.


(7a)
(PICK ONE)

Weathering is defined as the gradual breaking down or disintegration of rocks by either physical (mechanical) or chemical process. It is a fundamental geologic process that plays a significant role in shaping the Earth's landscape over long periods of time.


OR


Weathering is the process by which rocks, minerals, and other geological materials are broken down or altered near the Earth's surface.Weathering is a critical component in understanding the formation of landforms and the development of landscapes.


(7bi)
Frost action: This occurs in polar and temperate regions of the world where rocks on high mountains with cracks or joints collect water or snow in them . When the temperature drops during the night or winter, the water in the cracks freezes and melts during the day or summer. Such repeated freezing and melting widen and deepen the cracks which eventually break-down the rock.

(7bii)
Exfoliation: Exfoliation is a geological process that occurs as a result of mechanical weathering, which involves the physical breakdown of rocks into smaller fragments without changing their chemical composition. mechanism behind exfoliation involves the expansion and contraction of rocks in response to temperature changes.

(8a)
(PICK ANY ONE)
Solar energy is the renewable energy derived from the radiant heat and light emitted by the Sun. It is a clean and sustainable source of power that can be harnessed using technologies like solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity or solar thermal systems to generate heat.

OR

Solar energy refers to the radiant energy emitted by the Sun, which can be harnesses and converted into useful forms of energy such as heat and electricity using photovoltaic cells or solar thermal collectors.

OR

Solar energy refers to the abundant and natural energy produced by the Sun, which can be captured and transformed into usable energy forms.

(8b)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Job creation and economic Benefits: The solar energy sector has significant potential for job creation and economic growth. The installation, maintenance, and manufacturing of solar energy systems contribute to employment opportunities and local economic development.

(ii) Low operating costs: Once installed, solar energy systems require very little maintenance or operating costs. As the cost of solar technology continues to decrease, it has become increasingly affordable for individuals and businesses to invest in solar energy systems.

(iii) Environmentally Friendly: Solar energy production has minimal environmental impact compared to traditional energy sources like fossil fuels. It produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, helping to reduce air pollution and mitigate climate change

(iv) Renewable and sustainable: Solar energy is a clean and abundant source of energy that does not deplete natural resources and does not emit harmful pollutants into the environment. This makes it a sustainable and environmentally friendly energy source.

(v) Diverse Applications: Solar energy can be used for various applications. It can generate electricity for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes, provide heat for water heating and space heating, and even power remote areas where access to the grid is limited.

(vi) Energy Independence: Solar energy provides a level of energy independence that is not possible with traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources. It allows individuals and communities to generate their own power and reduces their dependence on centralized power grids.

(8c)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Intermittent Energy Source: Solar energy is an intermittent energy source, meaning it is only available during daylight hours and may vary depending on weather conditions. Energy storage systems such as batteries or pumped hydro storage can be used to overcome this challenge and provide a continuous flow of energy.

(ii) High Initial Costs: Although solar energy is cost-effective in the long run, the initial investment required to install solar panels and other equipment can be high, which may deter some individuals or businesses from investing in solar energy systems.

(iii) Land and Space Requirements: Solar energy systems, particularly large-scale solar farms, require a significant amount of land or roof space for installation. This can pose challenges in densely populated areas where suitable land or space may be limited or expensive.

(iv) Resource Limitations: The production of solar panels relies on certain materials, such as silicon, that may have limited availability or face potential supply chain constraints. Increased demand for solar energy could put pressure on these resources, leading to potential price fluctuations or supply challenges.

(v) Grid Integration and Infrastructure: Integrating solar energy into existing power grids can present challenges. The infrastructure may need upgrades to accommodate the intermittent nature of solar power and ensure efficient distribution. Grid stability and balancing supply and demand can be more complex with a significant influx of solar energy.

(vi) Manufacturing and Environmental Impact: The production and disposal of solar panels and other components have environmental implications. The manufacturing process involves energy-intensive activities and the use of certain materials with potential environmental impacts. Proper recycling and waste management practices are crucial to minimize the environmental footprint.


2023 WAEC GEOGRAPHY OBJECTIVES (OBJ) ANSWERS

1-10: CBCDDCAABB
11-20: DDCABADAAC
21-30: ABBCACDDDD
31-40: DABDDDADDC
41-50: DABCBDDBCC

2023 WAEC GENERAL GEOGRAPHY ESSAY OR THEORY ANSWERS:

(1a)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Infrastructure Deficiency: Insufficient infrastructure, including inadequate transportation networks, power shortages, and limited access to water and sanitation facilities, hampers industrial growth in developing countries. The lack of reliable infrastructure makes it challenging to establish and expand industries.

(ii) Limited Access to Capital: Many developing countries face challenges in accessing capital for industrial development. Limited availability of loans, high interest rates, and lack of venture capital impede the growth of industries, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

(iii) Poor Governance and Corruption: Weak governance structures, widespread corruption, and bureaucratic inefficiencies create an unfavorable business environment. These issues lead to uncertainty, lack of transparency, and barriers to entry for industries, discouraging both domestic and foreign investments.

(iv) Inadequate Skilled Workforce: Developing countries often face a shortage of skilled labor, particularly in specialized industries. Insufficient access to quality education and vocational training programs limit the availability of skilled workers required for industrial growth.

(v) Limited Technological Advancements: Many developing countries struggle to keep pace with technological advancements due to limited research and development capabilities, inadequate access to technology, and low adoption rates. The absence of technological innovation inhibits industrial growth and competitiveness.

(vi) Weak Regulatory Frameworks: Inadequate regulations, cumbersome bureaucratic processes, and ambiguous legal frameworks pose significant challenges for industries in developing countries. Unclear property rights, weak intellectual property protection, and excessive red tape hinder investment and growth.

(vii) Inadequate Market Integration: Insufficient integration into regional and global markets restricts the growth potential of industries in developing countries. Trade barriers, protectionist policies, and limited access to international markets limit export opportunities and hinder industrial expansion.

(viii) Environmental Challenges: Developing countries often face environmental issues, including pollution, deforestation, and inadequate waste management systems. These challenges not only impact the well-being of the population but also pose obstacles to sustainable industrial development and investment.

(1b)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Infrastructure Development: Investing in robust infrastructure, including transportation networks, power grids, and telecommunications systems, creates an enabling environment for industries to thrive. It improves connectivity, reduces logistics costs, and attracts investment.

(ii) Access to Finance: Enhancing access to finance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) through microcredit schemes, venture capital funds, and government-backed loan programs enables entrepreneurs to start and expand businesses, driving industrial growth.

(iii) Skill Development and Education: Investing in education and skill development programs ensures a competent workforce capable of meeting the demands of evolving industries. Vocational training, technical education, and entrepreneurship programs equip individuals with the necessary skills for employment and entrepreneurship.

(iv) Regulatory Reforms: Implementing business-friendly policies, reducing bureaucratic hurdles, and streamlining regulations can attract investment and foster a favorable business climate. Simplifying licensing procedures, reducing red tape, and promoting ease of doing business encourages industry growth.

(v) Research and Development Support: Encouraging research and development activities by providing incentives, grants, and tax breaks stimulates innovation and technological advancements. Collaborations between industries, universities, and research institutions facilitate knowledge transfer and foster innovation-driven industries.

(vi) Export Promotion: Supporting export-oriented industries through trade policies, market access initiatives, and export promotion agencies can enhance competitiveness in the global market. Providing export incentives, trade facilitation measures, and assistance with quality standards can boost industrial growth.

(vii) Investment in Renewable Energy: Developing countries can promote the growth of industries by investing in renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. This not only ensures sustainable industrial development but also reduces dependence on fossil fuels, mitigating environmental impacts.

(viii) Strengthening Institutions: Building strong institutions and improving governance frameworks create a stable and transparent business environment. Enhancing transparency, combating corruption, and strengthening legal frameworks protect investments and promote industrial growth
 
(2a)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Sparse Population: Rural settlements in tropical Africa tend to have a relatively low population density compared to urban areas. The population is often scattered across vast areas of land, with larger distances between individual households or villages.
(ii) Agricultural economy: Rural settlements in tropical Africa are predominantly agrarian, with agriculture being the primary economic activity. People rely on subsistence farming, livestock rearing, and small-scale agricultural production for their livelihoods.
(iii) Traditional housing: Rural settlements often have traditional housing structures made of locally available materials such as mud, thatch, or wood. These structures are designed to suit the local climate and cultural preferences.
(iv) Limited infrastructure: Rural settlements in tropical Africa often lack adequate infrastructure compared to urban areas. Basic amenities like electricity, clean water supply, healthcare facilities, and transportation networks may be limited or lacking altogether.
(v) Close-knit communities: Rural settlements typically have close-knit communities with strong social ties and communal values. People often live in extended family units and engage in collective activities such as farming, celebrations, and community decision-making.
(vi) Limited access to services: Due to their remote locations, rural settlements may have limited access to essential services such as education, healthcare, and government institutions. Access to quality education and healthcare facilities may be inadequate, resulting in challenges for rural residents.
(vii) Traditional social systems: Rural settlements in tropical Africa often have traditional social structures and systems that play a significant role in community life. This includes kinship systems, communal decision-making processes, and the influence of local chiefs or elders in governance and dispute resolution.


(2b)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Technology and information: Urban areas often serve as centers of technological advancement and information dissemination. Rural settlements rely on urban areas for access to modern technologies, internet connectivity, and information resources that can enhance agricultural practices, education, healthcare, and overall development.

(ii) Education and healthcare: Urban areas typically have better educational and healthcare facilities compared to rural settlements. Rural residents often depend on urban schools, colleges, and universities for higher education, and they may travel to urban centers to access specialized healthcare services.

(iii) Market access: Rural settlements rely on urban settlements as market centers for selling their agricultural produce and acquiring necessary goods and services that are not available locally. Urban centers act as economic hubs where rural farmers can sell their surplus produce and purchase items they cannot produce themselves.

(iv) Supply of goods and services: Rural settlements depend on urban settlements for the supply of goods and services that are not available in rural areas. This includes items like machinery, fertilizers, construction materials, healthcare services, and educational resources.

(v) Employment opportunities: Many rural inhabitants depend on urban settlements for employment opportunities. People may migrate from rural areas to urban areas in search of better job prospects and higher wages, particularly in non-agricultural sectors such as manufacturing, construction, and services.

(vi)  Transportation and logistics: Urban areas provide transportation networks and logistics services that facilitate the movement of goods and people between rural and urban settlements. Rural communities rely on urban transportation systems for the shipment of agricultural produce, the transportation of essential goods, and the movement of people.

(vii) Infrastructure development: Urban areas are often the hubs of infrastructure development. Rural settlements rely on urban centers for the construction and maintenance of roads, bridges, electricity grids, telecommunications networks, and other vital infrastructure.

(viii)  Government services and administration: Rural settlements often depend on urban settlements for government services and administration. Government offices, educational institutions, healthcare facilities, and other essential services are usually concentrated in urban areas. Rural residents may need to travel to urban centers to access these services or engage with government institutions
 
(3a)
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Efficient Movement of Goods: Rail transportation allows for the efficient movement of goods across long distances. It can accommodate large quantities of cargo, making it an ideal mode of transport for industries such as agriculture, mining, and manufacturing in tropical Africa. This efficiency helps stimulate trade and economic growth.

(ii) Reduced Congestion: Compared to road transportation, rail systems help alleviate congestion on major highways. By diverting a significant portion of freight traffic to rail, the congestion on roads is reduced, resulting in smoother traffic flow, decreased travel times, and improved road safety.

(iii) Lower Environmental Impact: Rail transportation is more environmentally friendly compared to road transport. Trains emit less carbon dioxide per ton of freight compared to trucks, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. This advantage is crucial for tropical Africa's sustainability efforts and can contribute to mitigating climate change impacts.

(iv) Enhanced Connectivity: Rail networks provide enhanced connectivity by linking remote areas and cities, facilitating economic integration and regional development. They enable access to markets, resources, and employment opportunities, boosting trade, tourism, and economic activities across tropical Africa.

(v) Increased Accessibility: Rail systems provide reliable and accessible transportation for both passengers and goods. They offer a cost-effective means of travel, making it easier for people to commute between cities and towns, visit tourist destinations, and access essential services such as healthcare and education. This accessibility helps bridge the gap between rural and urban areas.

(vi) Job Creation: Developing rail infrastructure in tropical Africa generates employment opportunities in various sectors. From construction and maintenance to operation and management, rail projects create jobs for engineers, technicians, drivers, station staff, and support personnel. This job creation contributes to economic development and poverty reduction.

(vii) Long-term Cost Savings: While initial investments in rail infrastructure may be significant, in the long run, rail transport can be cost-effective. Railways have lower operating costs compared to road transport due to lower fuel consumption, reduced vehicle maintenance, and decreased road damage. These cost savings can be beneficial for both businesses and governments.

(3b)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Insufficient Infrastructure: Many countries in tropical Africa have outdated and inadequate rail infrastructure. The existing rail networks often suffer from poor maintenance, outdated technology, and insufficient capacity. This results in slower speeds, frequent breakdowns, and limited connectivity, hindering the smooth movement of goods and passengers.

(ii) Funding Constraints: Lack of adequate funding is a major challenge for rail projects in tropical Africa. Limited financial resources lead to delays in infrastructure upgrades, repairs, and expansion, hampering the overall efficiency of rail transportation.

(iii) Inadequate Maintenance: Due to financial constraints and lack of technical expertise, rail infrastructure in tropical Africa often suffers from inadequate maintenance. This results in deteriorating tracks, bridges, and signaling systems, leading to frequent disruptions, delays, and safety concerns.

(iv) Lack of Interconnectivity: Many rail networks in tropical Africa suffer from a lack of interconnectivity, limiting their reach and effectiveness. Incomplete or fragmented rail systems make it challenging to transport goods seamlessly across different regions, hindering economic integration and trade.

(v) Inefficient Operations: Inefficient operations and management practices contribute to the problems facing rail transportation in tropical Africa. Factors such as outdated technology, inadequate training of staff, and suboptimal scheduling and coordination lead to delays, inefficiencies, and reduced service quality.

(vi) Insecurity: Rail transportation in tropical Africa often faces security challenges such as vandalism, theft, and sabotage. These incidents not only disrupt operations but also pose risks to the safety of passengers and cargo.

(3c)
(PICK ANY THREE, MAKE SURE IT IS SAME WITH WHAT YOU PICKED IN 3b)
(i) Insufficient Infrastructure: Increased investment in rail infrastructure by seeking partnerships with international organizations, private sector entities, and foreign investors can provide the necessary funding for infrastructure upgrades, expansion, and modernization, thereby improving the capacity and quality of rail networks.
(ii)  Funding Constraints: Governments can offer incentives and create a conducive business environment to encourage private sector participation.
(iii) Inadequate Maintenance: Government should establish a dedicated maintenance fund for rail infrastructure, ensuring a regular and sufficient budget allocation for maintenance activities and also train and employ skilled maintenance personnel.
(iv) Lack of Interconnectivity: Improved coordination and planning are required to enhance interconnectivity between different rail lines and modes of transport.
(v) Inefficient Operations: Implementing modern management practices, training programs, and technological upgrades can address these issues.
(vi) Insecurity: Strengthening security measures, implementing surveillance systems, and increasing law enforcement presence can help mitigate these risks.
 
(4a)
(PICK ANY ONE)
Internal trade refers to the exchange of goods, services, and resources within the boundaries of a particular country or region. It involves commercial transactions and economic activities conducted between individuals, businesses, or entities located within the same country or geographic area.

OR

Internal trade refers to the buying and selling of goods and services within the geographical boundaries of a country. It involves the exchange of goods and services between different regions, states or cities within the country.

(4b)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Poor Trade Facilitation: Inefficient trade facilitation processes, including cumbersome documentation requirements, lack of harmonization in trade regulations across states, and delays in clearing goods at ports and borders, increase transaction costs and hinder internal trade.

(ii) High Cost of Finance: Limited access to affordable credit and high interest rates make it difficult for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to access capital for business expansion and investment in internal trade.

(iii) Poor infrastructure: Nigeria's poor road network, insufficient transport systems, and inadequate storage facilities make it difficult to move goods from one location to another, resulting in delays, high transportation costs, and damage to goods.

(iv) Inconsistent Policies and Regulations: Frequent changes in policies and regulations at various levels of government create uncertainty and hamper trade activities. Inconsistent policies can result in confusion, compliance difficulties, and discourage investment in the country.

(v) Multiple taxation: The multiplicity of taxes imposed on traders, including local government levies, state taxes, and federal duties, makes trading in Nigeria very expensive, reducing profitability for traders.

(vi) Corruption: Bribery and extortion of traders by government officials, security forces, and market leaders have been a persistent problem in Nigeria, discouraging many from engaging in formal internal trade.

(vii) Insecurity: Insurgency, banditry, and other forms of violence in different parts of Nigeria have adversely affected internal trade, discouraging traders from entering certain regions, causing loss of life and property, and disrupting supply chains.

(viii) Multiple Checkpoints and Roadblocks: Excessive checkpoints, roadblocks, and extortion by security personnel pose significant challenges to internal trade. These checkpoints cause delays, corruption, and raise the cost of doing business.

(ix) Inefficient Customs Procedures: Cumbersome customs procedures, including excessive paperwork and delays in clearing goods, hinder the smooth flow of trade within Nigeria. This leads to increased transaction costs and negatively affects the competitiveness of local businesses.


(4c)
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Revenue Generation: Internal trade generates revenue for the government through taxes, duties, and other levies imposed on trade activities. These revenues can be used to fund infrastructure development, social welfare programs, and other public services, contributing to the overall socio-economic development of the country

(ii) Social Integration: Internal trade promotes social integration by connecting people from different regions and cultures within Nigeria. It facilitates the exchange of ideas, knowledge, and cultural practices, fostering unity and a sense of national identity. It also helps to reduce regional disparities and promotes social cohesion.

(iii) Diversification of Economy: Internal trade promotes the diversification of the Nigerian economy. It allows for the exchange of a wide range of goods and services, which encourages the development of various sectors, such as agriculture, manufacturing, and services. This diversification reduces dependence on a single industry, making the economy more resilient to external shocks.

(iv) Encourages Investment: A vibrant internal trade environment attracts domestic and foreign investment. When businesses have access to a large and diverse market, they are more likely to invest in expanding their operations, building infrastructure, and creating employment opportunities. This, in turn, drives economic growth and development.

(v) Economic growth: Internal trade drives economic growth by promoting the exchange of goods and services between regions, stimulating competition, encouraging innovation, and creating jobs.

(vi) Market Efficiency: Internal trade helps to create a more efficient market by facilitating the movement of goods from areas of surplus to areas of demand. This ensures that products are available at competitive prices throughout the country, reducing regional disparities and ensuring optimal allocation of resources.

(vii) Poverty reduction: Internal trade provides income and employment opportunities for many Nigerians, particularly those in the informal sector, helping to reduce poverty in the country.

(viii) Regional integration: Internal trade promotes regional integration by encouraging the exchange of goods and services between different regions, enhancing economic cooperation and social cohesion.

(ix) Enhanced food security: Internal trade promotes access to food in different regions, ensuring that people have enough food to eat, no matter where they live. This is particularly important in times of food shortages or when certain foods are unavailable in a particular region.


 
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