2023 WAEC GCE Literature (Drama & Poetry) Answers [30th November]
Get Free Live 2023 WAEC GCE November/December (2nd Series) Literature in English (LIT-IN-ENG) Prose, OBJ, Drama & Poertry Questions and Answers for Private Candidates Free of Charge | WAEC GCE Nov/Dec Free Literature Questions and Answers (Drama, Poetry, Prose & OBJ) EXPO Room (30th November, 2023).
Tuesday, 28th, November, 2023
Literature-In-English 2 (Prose) – 9:30am – 10:45am
Literature-In-English 1 (Objective) – 10:45am – 11:45am
Thursday, 30th November, 2023
Literature-In-English 3 (Drama & Poetry) – 2:00pm – 4:30pm


Jilo, she is Ndapi’s adulterous wife. She thrives hard to become a good wife to Ndapi, but Jilo wouldn’t reciprocate such affectionate love gesture. This drives her into the hands of Lansana who has a sugar-coated tongue and they become lovers until they are caught in the bush embracing each other. Meanwhile, they have been meeting secretly in Ndapi’s house whenever he’s not around.

When brought to Yoko, she orders her to be put in stocks pending when Lansana who had gone to Taiama and be back in three days’ time is found. She attempts to defend the act, but unfortunately, there is no reason why she should cheat on her husband.
Jilo also confesses to Fanneh that she is a woman who is constantly abused by a man whom she gives her body. She admits that it is frustration from her marital home that compelled her to flirt and have an affair with Lansana.

COLONEL REDFERN is Alison’s father who is also a former colonel in the British army stationed in the English colony of India (back before 1947 that is, when India was still a colony of England. He represents Britain’s great Edwardian past. He was a military leader in India for many years before returning with his family to England. He is quite particular and critical of Jimmy and Alison and Alison’s marriage, but admits that he is to blame for many of their problems because of his undue meddling in their affairs. He is gentle and kind in his approach to issues and this makes him command respect.

He is very incisive and he believes every standard should be maintained. He feels discouraged about Jimmy resorting to below-standard Jobs such as sweet-stall. It does not seem an extraordinary thing for an educated young man to be occupying himself with. Why should he want to do that, of all things”. The Colonel admits that both he and Alison’s mother are to blame for everything; he also becomes mystified when Alison reveals that her marriage to Jimmy is built on revenge mission. As a believer of true love, Colonel wonders why youths of nowadays don’t marry for love. “They have to talk about challenges and revenge. I just can’t believe that love between men and moment is really like that.

Colonel Redfern is a calm and easy-going soldier who does not use his Juicy office to maltreat others. He refuses to approach Alison’s maltreatment with military fashion, but waits patiently to listen to both parties involved.

Mrs. Redfern represents the older, traditional generation, embodying the societal norms and expectations of her time. Her influence is felt through Alison, who is married to the play's protagonist, Jimmy Porter. Alison's background and upbringing with a more conservative mother contribute to the tension and conflict in her marriage with Jimmy, who rebels against societal conventions and expresses his discontent through anger and frustration.

Alison's ties to her mother become a source of conflict, highlighting the generation gap and the clash between the traditional values represented by Mrs. Redfern and the rebellious, iconoclastic attitude of Jimmy. The unseen but ever-present influence of Mrs. Redfern contributes to the theme of societal expectations and the struggle to break free from them.

Alison's internal conflict, torn between her loyalty to her mother's values and her desire for independence with Jimmy, reflects the broader social changes occurring in post-war Britain. Mrs. Redfern's role, therefore, is not just that of a distant figure but a symbol of the societal expectations that the characters grapple with, adding depth and context to the play's exploration of class, relationships, and cultural shifts.

The nature of Jimmy’s talk to Alison is quite controversial; as it’s effect in Jimmy and Alison’s marriage is consummated in the ground of revenge. Their relationship is seen as master and servant relationship and they barely enjoy peace and harmony at home as Jimmy is always at the control of everything, while Alison’s business is to remain silent. Jimmy believes that love is pain and suffering. He therefore scorns Cliff and Alison’s love for each other, which is gentle fondness that does not correspond to his own brand of passionate, angry feeling. Jimmy’s definition of love has to do with the class tensions between Jimmy and Alison, and she tells her father, colonel Redfern that Jimmy married her out of sense of revenge against the upper classes. It was born out of sense of competition between classes.

It is clear that Jimmy and Alison’s love for each other is not characterized by much tenderness though they do manage to exhibit one when they play their animal game. Jimmy and Alison as the beer and squirrel are able to express more simple affection for each other, but only in a dehumanized manner. In the first scene, Jimmy describes the game as a retreat from organized society. Their relationship is marred by class struggle anger and suffering.

Jimmy and Alison’s relationship lack feeling and stability, because Jimmy especially, does not nurse any aorta of feeling for Alison, as he feels undaunted or not worry at all when she lost her first baby, Alison who is ever ready to be with Jimmy walks away and returns quickly to him and they both renew their vows and opts for peace.

To Rose, Troy breaks their marital vow which spells out one man, one wife, and also kicks against adulterous act he committed with Alberta which result to the birth of Raynell. Rose being a kind-hearted woman ostensibly refuses to return evil for evil, and she forgives Troy and opts to bring up Raynell.

Rose however, is interested in building a united family with an enduring legacy and that is why she keeps talking about building fences which is symbolic of protection, oneness and unity. Her dream is to unite Troy, Cory and Lyons as one family. The more she thrives to attain that the more circumstances beyond her immediate control pull her down her dream of a monogamous family with rebirth is shattered by Troy’s adulterous act which results to the birth of Raynell. She compromises her dreams for Troy when he dies by accepting to bring up and train Raynell.

Rose shows the forgiving attitude by accepting to bring up Raynell, that is, the illegitimate daughter of Troy and Alberta who died shortly after child birth in order to promote peace harmony and family integration in Maxsons.

In the poem, the poet attributes rage or uncontrolled anger to be the chief destroyer of human virtue and a thief that steals away our good morals such as happiness, joy and good life. Anger does not yield any good fruit, but rather it will “breach your sails with arrows unseen” – meaning, it exposes you to danger, “Which would blot out that brief”: reduces your lifespan. “No! Rob you of your life, rage is chief”. Here the persona sees anger as the most important vice that can ruin your life totally. “Rage drags rags after you” – anger breeds shame and spoils all other good virtues such as kindness, laughter, sweetness and light.

The poet therefore calls rage thief because it spoils so many good things in you. It is the enemy of equanimity, because it steals away your gentleness, kindness, calmness and loveliness. Anger also makes one unstable in character and does not allow one compose oneself especially under stress. “Rage spells calamity” – meaning, it engineers other evils like hard luck, violence, murder, insecurity and regret.

The poet persona therefore sees anger as the raider of treasure trove.

The poet delves into the profound impact of newfound love, crafting a sonnet that transcends mere romantic sentiments to explore the transformative nature of profound connection. The poem commences with an interrogation of past experiences, suggesting that the speaker's life before this love was akin to a dream—an existence lacking true awakening. The metaphorical sleep implies a state of incompleteness or unawareness, contrasting sharply with the vitality and awareness that the poet attributes to the awakening brought about by love.

As the poem unfolds,the poet artfully employs metaphors and vivid imagery to convey the depth of this transformative love. The line "And now good morrow to our waking souls" signals a departure from a past defined by superficial encounters to a present illuminated by an all-encompassing connection. The merging of souls implies a profound unity, transcending the physical and reaching into the metaphysical realm. The very fabric of reality seems altered, as if the lovers have discovered a new dimension of existence.

The poet accentuates the magnitude of this newfound love by dismissing past experiences as mere illusions, asserting that everything before was a "feigned common thing." The metaphorical reference to past lovers as "country pleasures" reinforces the idea that the speaker has moved beyond trivial or superficial connections, finding in this love a more profound and lasting satisfaction.

The poet's choice of metaphors, such as "Seven hours to the, and the last lights off the black West went," paints a vivid picture of time passing unnoticed during the night, suggesting that the intensity of their connection transcends the ordinary markers of temporal existence. The mention of the "black West" may also symbolize the obscurity or lack of awareness before the dawn of this transformative love.

"The Good-Morrow" intricately explores the transformative power of profound love, depicting it as a force that awakens the soul, transcends past experiences, and elevates the lovers to a heightened state of existence. The poet employs rich imagery and metaphors to convey the depth and significance of this newfound connection, emphasizing its ability to redefine not only the present but also the entire fabric of one's past and future.



Adah, in her choice to marry Francis despite evident challenges, emerges as a key contributor to the failure of their marriage.

The union is marked by financial difficulties and misfortune. Adah's family couldn't attend the wedding due to Francis's inability to pay the demanded bride price for a "College trained bride." The lack of support from Francis, who refuses to work and contribute to the family, becomes a recurring issue.

Adah's desire to work hard and financially support her family clashes with Francis's parasitic approach to the marriage. While she dreams of contributing to her family's welfare, Francis seems more focused on benefiting from her efforts. Adah's resentment grows as she is compelled to financially support her family, feeling betrayed by her mother's decision to remarry.

Adah's dreams of marrying a rich man to alleviate financial burdens clash with societal expectations. The community views marriage as a master-servant union, where women are expected to serve and bear children without being seen as equal partners. Adah's decision to marry Francis, a young man struggling to pay an expensive bride price, leads to her family boycotting the wedding.

The marriage, seemingly devoid of genuine love, relies heavily on Adah's hard work and substantial salary. Francis, unwilling to contribute to the family's well-being, demonstrates a lack of initiative. His actions, such as writing to Adah's parents over minor issues and opposing her pursuit of writing, underscore a parasitic relationship dynamic.

Francis's perspective on marriage positions women as second-class humans, emphasizing their role in childbirth and domestic chores. Adah's dreams of becoming a writer are stifled by Francis's opposition, reflecting a disregard for her aspirations.

Despite being the breadwinner, Adah faces maltreatment, assault, insult, abandonment, and rejection from Francis. He rejects their children in court and harbors ill wishes towards them, further highlighting the dysfunctional nature of their marriage.

Adah's lack of foresight in choosing Francis, along with societal pressures and Francis's parasitic approach to the marriage, significantly contributes to the failure of their relationship. The narrative portrays a union devoid of mutual understanding and love, characterized by financial struggles and a stark power imbalance.


Pa Ofili's role in Buchi Emecheta's "Second Class Citizen" is integral to the narrative as it embodies the traditional patriarchal values and societal expectations prevalent in Nigeria during the time the novel is set. As the father of the protagonist, Adah, Pa Ofili becomes a symbol of the oppressive norms that contribute to Adah's status as a second-class citizen.

One of the primary aspects of Pa Ofili's character is his adherence to traditional gender roles. He represents the conservative mindset that reinforces the idea that a woman's place is within the confines of domesticity, serving her husband and family. Throughout the novel, Pa Ofili consistently imposes these expectations on Adah, limiting her opportunities and stifling her aspirations. His role, therefore, becomes a source of conflict for Adah as she grapples with the desire for independence and self-fulfillment in the face of societal constraints.

Pa Ofili's influence extends beyond the confines of the household, reflecting the broader societal attitudes towards women in Nigeria during the period depicted in the novel. His character serves as a microcosm of the deeply ingrained patriarchal norms that shape the experiences of women in various aspects of life. By embodying these societal expectations, Pa Ofili becomes a catalyst for Adah's struggles as she navigates a world that consistently devalues and marginalizes her simply because of her gender.

Pa Ofili's traditional beliefs contribute to Adah's experience as a second-class citizen by limiting her educational opportunities. He views education as unnecessary for a woman and actively discourages Adah from pursuing her intellectual interests. This denial of educational empowerment perpetuates the cycle of inequality, as Adah is denied the tools she needs to break free from the societal constraints imposed on her. Pa Ofili's role in restricting Adah's education not only reflects the prevalent gender bias but also underscores the broader systemic issues that hinder women's advancement.

Despite the challenges posed by Pa Ofili's character, it is essential to note that he is not portrayed as a one-dimensional villain. Instead, he represents a product of his time and cultural context, highlighting the deeply ingrained nature of these patriarchal norms. His character adds complexity to the narrative by illustrating how even well-intentioned individuals can perpetuate oppressive ideologies simply by conforming to societal expectations.


The narrator heads straight to Harlem upon arriving in New York, was more secure in himself and his prospects. He is shocked as he’s pushed up against a white woman who does not appear to notice. Also greeted with a larger quantity of black people in Harlem than he expects. He also encountered a man named, Ras, yelling to a crowd. The narrator cannot understand why the police do nothing to quell the riot on the ground, instead, the police show him to Men’s House where he finds a room.
His major notable experience in Harlem was the delivering of his enclosed Letter.

The narrator sits in his new apartment musing over his life back home. He feels important when thinking about his letters, and he decides to plan out his strategy for the next morning. He is determined to visit the officials with the contacts in the letters. Firstly, he makes his way to Mr. Bates’ office but does not want to go in too early in case the employer does not like to see Negroes early in the morning. When he finally enters, he finds a lone secretary who is much more amiable than he expects. She takes the letter from him and disappears into another room. She returns to report that Mr. Bates is busy but will contact him. Disappointed, the narrator repeats the episode with several other secretaries during his first day there, not having better success. He holds onto the letter for Mr. Emerson because he learns he’s out of town. The narrator’s several efforts to deliver those letters to his employers prove abortive, and he begins to suspect. Mr. Norton and Bledsoe may be part of a scheme concerning him and the employers.

At Emerson’s office, the narrator is impressed with the nature of the luxury in the office. A man walks in and takes the letter into the office. A few days later, he invites him into an office and asks him questions. The narrator is at ease when asked if he would consider attending another college and if he had opened the letter. The narrator becomes angry and demands to meet with Emerson. The man then reveals that Emerson is his father and shows him a letter from Bledsoe which states that the narrator will never be enrolled at the college again and asks the employers to assist Bledsoe in keeping the narrator from trying to return. The reason given to the contacts is that the narrator has gone astray, and poses a danger to the delicate situation of the college. Emerson’s son then mentions a job opening at Liberty Paints and wishes him luck.

Meanwhile, the narrator feels betrayed and compares himself to a robin picked clean. Deciding to go back to the college and kill Bledsoe for playing him like a fool, he resolves to get any job immediately to find his revenge. He is told to report to the liberty paint the next morning.


The gain of his invisibility is evident in the novel. The narrator puts on invisibility in order to express himself in a society that is not safe for the blacks. He is visible only on the surface, but is really invisible. When the narrator is invisible, he is praised for the things he had done. The narrator tries to announce and explain his invisibility at the beginning of the novel. Significantly, the narrator is invisible because the entire white race is too blind to see the conditions of the black in their society” their inability, to recognize and affirm their identity makes them blind and “vision-less. The narrator’s drastic measure and decision to go underground and return later portends his plan to fight back racial prejudice and his invisibility would be cast off in the end.

The narrator’s desire to change the course of his story that makes the whites more important than the blacks contributes to the enormous struggles the narrator encountered. No black man is allowed to rise beyond a certain level because of the problem of race and his desire to self-define himself. The protagonist of the novel attributes his invisibility largely to his inability to define himself outside the influence of others. Almost everyone he encounters attempts to tell him who he is, and how he should conduct himself.

At the college for instance, Dr. Bledsoe tells the narrator that he should smile and lie to please the white. The narrator is given an honor to drive one trustee known as Mr. Norton and the narrator is reprimanded for his action at the pub. Also, he is initiated into the brotherhood to become their spoke man, but their selfish aims and objective or too many unreasonable rules makes him back out in the end. At first, the Brotherhood attempts to redefine him by giving him a new name and identity and by having him go through intense instructions to ensure he adapt to the organization’s philosophies. Fortunately, the narrator has to go underground in order to define himself. He does this because he’s not able to finds solution to racial prejudice in his society. His decision to go underground and come back later also portends that the narrator has not relent in his struggle to ameliorate the conditions of his society. This is evident in his enviable conclusion.


Heathcliff's obsession with wealth and property in Emily Brontë's "Wuthering Heights" is a central aspect of his character, driving much of the novel's plot and contributing to the overall theme of destructive passion and revenge.

Heathcliff's intense desire for wealth and property can be traced back to his troubled childhood and his mistreatment at the hands of Hindley Earnshaw. When Heathcliff is brought into the Earnshaw household as an orphan, he is subjected to Hindley's abuse and made to feel like an outsider. This early experience of deprivation and mistreatment fuels his determination to gain power and status.

Heathcliff's love for Catherine Earnshaw is entangled with his desire for social elevation. Catherine, influenced by the societal expectations of her time, cannot imagine marrying Heathcliff, who is considered beneath her socially. This rejection deeply wounds Heathcliff and becomes a driving force behind his determination to amass wealth and social standing. His obsessive pursuit of property and money is, in part, an attempt to prove himself worthy of Catherine and to overcome the social barriers that separate them.

Heathcliff's acquisition of Thrushcross Grange and Wuthering Heights is not merely a quest for material wealth; it is a means of asserting dominance and revenge. After being mistreated by Hindley, Heathcliff returns as a wealthy and enigmatic figure, seeking to exert control over the properties that were once denied to him. His ruthless pursuit of property is fueled by a desire for retribution against those who have wronged him, especially Hindley and the Lintons.

The theme of possession extends beyond physical property to include people. Heathcliff's treatment of others reflects his possessive nature. His marriage to Isabella Linton, for example, is motivated more by a desire to gain control over Thrushcross Grange than by genuine affection. Similarly, his treatment of Hareton Earnshaw, Hindley's son, is marked by a desire to assert dominance and secure his hold on Wuthering Heights.

Heathcliff's obsession with wealth and property contributes to the dark and destructive atmosphere of the novel. The pursuit of material success becomes a destructive force, leading to suffering and tragedy for all involved. The emphasis on possession and revenge underscores the novel's exploration of the destructive consequences of unchecked passion and the corrosive nature of societal expectations.

Heathcliff's obsession with wealth and property in "Wuthering Heights" is a complex and multifaceted aspect of his character. It is rooted in his tumultuous past, intertwined with his relationships, and serves as a driving force behind much of the novel's plot. Heathcliff's relentless pursuit of social standing and revenge adds layers of depth to his character, contributing to the overall tragic and tumultuous narrative of Emily Brontë's classic novel.




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