2023 NABTEB GCE Economics (OBJ & Essay) Answers [4th December]
Get Free Live 2023 NABTEB GCE Economics (ECONS) Objectives and Essay/Theory Questions and Answers Free of Charge | NABTEB Nov/Dec GCE Free Economics (Economics) OBJ & Essay Questions and Answers EXPO Room (4th December, 2023).
NABTEB NOV/DEC GCE 2023 FREE Economics OBJ & ESSAY (ECONS) QUESTION AND ANSWER ROOM

Monday 4th December, 2023
Economics (11:00am-2:20pm)

A. NABTEB NOV/DEC GCE ECONOMICS OBJECTIVES (OBJ) ANSWERS 2023:

1-10: CCDD-BBCBC
11-20: BCBADCDACB
21-30: ABCDBDCBDB
31-40: CBBBBCABCB
41-50: DDDCCDBCCC


B. NABTEB NOV/DEC GCE ECONOMICS ESSAY (THEORY) ANSWERS 2023:



 

(3a)
Production is the process of converting inputs such as raw materials, labor, and capital into finished goods and services, contributing to economic growth and the satisfaction of human needs and wants.

(3b)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Economies of Scale: Large-scale production allows for the efficient utilization of resources, resulting in lower average costs per unit. This is due to the spreading of fixed costs over a larger production volume, leading to economies of scale. As production increases, the cost per unit decreases, contributing to overall cost efficiency and competitiveness in the market.

(ii) Increased Efficiency:
Large-scale production facilitates increased efficiency through the implementation of specialization and the division of labor. Large-scale production facilitates specialization, where workers can focus on specific tasks. Division of labor enhances overall efficiency in the production process. Specialized workers become more skilled at their assigned tasks, leading to improved productivity and streamlined operations.

(iii) Technological Advancements: Larger production units can afford significant investments in modern technologies, machinery, and equipment. This results in improved production processes, increased automation, and higher levels of productivity. The adoption of advanced technologies contributes to the overall quality of products and enhances the competitiveness of large-scale producers in the market.

(iv) Market Dominance and Influence: Large-scale producers often dominate markets due to their significant production capacities and resources. This dominance allows them to influence industry trends, set standards, and implement strategic marketing initiatives. Their market position provides a competitive edge, attracting more customers and ensuring a stable market share.

(v) Negotiating Power: Large-scale producers possess considerable negotiating power with suppliers. The ability to purchase raw materials and resources in bulk allows them to negotiate favorable terms, such as lower prices or extended credit periods. This ensures a cost-effective supply chain, contributing to overall cost efficiency in large-scale production.

(vi) Research and Development Opportunities: Large-scale production units often have dedicated resources for research and development (R&D). This investment fosters innovation, leading to the creation of new products, improved processes, and increased competitiveness. Research initiatives contribute to staying ahead in the market and meeting evolving consumer demands.

(vii) Stability and Risk Management: Large-scale production provides a level of stability and risk management. Diversification of products and markets reduces dependence on a single product or market segment. This diversification helps mitigate risks associated with market fluctuations, changes in consumer preferences, or economic downturns, ensuring sustained business operations.

(viii) Employment Opportunities: Large-scale production units generate significant employment opportunities within the community. The scale of operations requires a larger workforce.  By offering numerous job opportunities, large-scale production contributes to reducing unemployment rates and enhancing the economic well-being of the local community.

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(4)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Poor Infrastructure: Inadequate transportation networks, unreliable power supply, and deficient logistics infrastructure pose significant challenges to the efficient distribution of goods. Poor roads and transportation systems can lead to delays, increased costs, and difficulties reaching remote areas.

(ii) Fragmented Market: Nigeria's diverse population and market fragmentation make it challenging for companies to establish effective distribution channels. Differing consumer preferences, cultural variations, and regional disparities require tailored marketing strategies, adding complexity to distribution efforts.

(iii) Inadequate Storage Facilities: Limited access to modern storage facilities and warehouses can result in issues such as product deterioration, spoilage, and stockouts. Inadequate storage infrastructure affects the overall supply chain efficiency and product quality.

(iv) Bureaucratic Challenges: Cumbersome bureaucratic processes, including complex regulatory requirements and customs procedures, can impede the smooth movement of goods. Excessive paperwork and delays in obtaining necessary permits contribute to inefficiencies in distribution.

(v) Security Concerns: Security challenges, including theft, vandalism, and attacks on transportation routes, pose significant risks to the distribution and marketing of goods. These security issues can lead to disruptions, increased insurance costs, and loss of valuable inventory.

(vi) Counterfeit Products: The prevalence of counterfeit products in the market undermines the integrity of brands and erodes consumer trust. The presence of fake goods not only impacts sales but also poses risks to consumer health and safety.

(vii) Market Competition: Intense competition in the market, especially in densely populated urban areas, creates challenges for businesses trying to establish a distinct market presence. Price wars and aggressive marketing strategies can strain profit margins and limit market share growth.

(viii) Economic Instability: Nigeria's economic volatility, including inflation, currency fluctuations, and economic downturns, can impact consumer purchasing power and demand for goods. Businesses face challenges in adapting to changing economic conditions and may experience difficulties in setting stable pricing strategies.

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(5a)
Human capital development refers to the process of enhancing the knowledge, skills, capabilities, and well-being of individuals in a society or organization through education, training, and other initiatives. It recognizes individuals as valuable assets and aims to optimize their potential for personal, social, and economic growth.

(5b)
(i) Education and Training: The quality and relevance of education and training programs significantly impact the efficiency of human capital. Well-designed educational systems and continuous training opportunities enhance individuals' skills and adaptability, contributing to higher efficiency.

(ii) Health and Well-being: The health and well-being of individuals influence their ability to contribute to productive activities. Access to healthcare, nutrition, and overall well-being positively correlates with higher levels of energy, focus, and efficiency in the workforce.

(iii) Work Environment: The conditions of the work environment, including workplace culture, safety, and organizational support, affect the efficiency of human capital. A positive work environment fosters motivation, job satisfaction, and overall productivity.

(iv) Technological Advancements: Access to and proficiency in emerging technologies play a crucial role in enhancing human capital efficiency. Individuals and organizations that embrace technological advancements can leverage innovation to optimize processes and stay competitive.

(v) Incentives and Recognition: Monetary and non-monetary incentives, as well as recognition for achievements, influence human capital efficiency. Reward systems and acknowledgment of individual contributions motivate employees, fostering a sense of commitment and dedication.

(vi) Diversity and Inclusion: Diversity and inclusion contribute to the efficiency of human capital by fostering creativity, collaboration, and a broader range of perspectives. Organizations that embrace diversity benefit from a more dynamic and adaptable workforce, leading to increased efficiency and innovation.

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(6ai)
Privatization is the process of transferring ownership or control of government - owned assets, industries, or services to the private sector. This involves selling off state-owned enterprises or services to private individuals or companies.

(6aii)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Efficiency: Privatization often leads to increased efficiency and productivity as private companies aim to cut costs, streamline operations, and innovate to remain competitive.

(ii) Innovation: Private ownership encourages innovation and technological advancements as companies seek ways to improve products or services to attract customers.

(iii) Reduced Government Spending: Privatization can reduce the burden on government finances by transferring the cost of managing and maintaining assets or services to the private sector.

(iv) Entrepreneurship and Investment: Privatization can attract private investment and entrepreneurial activity, stimulating economic growth and job creation in the process


(6bi)
Deregulation refers to the reduction or elimination of government regulations and restrictions in a specific industry or sector. This process aims to create a more open and competitive marketplace by removing barriers that might hinder entry, innovation, or competition among businesses within that industry.

(6bii)
(PICK ANY TWO)
(i) Economic Growth: Deregulation can stimulate economic growth by encouraging investment, job creation, and entrepreneurial activity within deregulated industries.

(ii) Innovation: Deregulation often sparks innovation as companies seek new ways to differentiate themselves and attract customers in a more open market environment.

(iii) Increased Competition: Deregulation often leads to more competition within industries, fostering innovation and providing consumers with a wider range of choices at potentially lower prices.

(iv) Efficiency: Removing certain regulations can streamline processes, reduce bureaucratic burdens, and encourage businesses to operate more efficiently, improving productivity

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(7)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Infrastructure Deficiencies: Inadequate infrastructure, including poor roads, unreliable power supply, and limited access to ports, hinders industrial growth by increasing transportation costs and limiting the movement of goods and services.

(ii) Limited Access to Financing: Many industries in West Africa face challenges in accessing affordable financing, hindering their ability to expand, invest in technology, or innovate.

(iii) Skills Gap: There's often a mismatch between the skills offered by the workforce and those demanded by industries. This gap affects productivity and limits the ability to adopt new technologies.

(iv) High degree of foreign dependence: Most products made in West Africa are of low quality when compared with those in developed countries. Hence, many West African countries heavily rely on exporting raw materials, which limits industrial diversification and value addition within their economies.

(v) Policy Instability: Inconsistent or unstable government policies and regulations create uncertainty for businesses, deterring investment and long-term planning.

(vi) Poor management: Corruption, embezzlement and negligence of duty are very common in West Africa countries and these are indicators of poor management.

(vii) Competition: Industries in West Africa face stiff competition from imported goods due to challenges related to economies of scale, high production costs, and limited access to regional and international markets.

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(8a)
Population census is a systematic and comprehensive collection of demographic, social, and economic data of all individuals residing within a specific geographical area, typically conducted by a government.

(8b)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Undercounting: Incomplete coverage during the enumeration process, often due to logistical challenges, inadequate resources, or the inability to reach certain remote or marginalized populations, can lead to undercounting and an inaccurate representation of the actual population.

(ii) Political Interference: Political interference and manipulation for electoral or resource allocation purposes can compromise the accuracy of census figures. Attempts to influence the numbers for political gain may result in inflated or deflated population figures, distorting demographic realities.

(iii) Cultural and Religious Sensitivities: Cultural and religious sensitivities may affect the willingness of certain populations to participate in the census. Concerns about privacy, suspicion of the government's intentions, or cultural beliefs may lead some individuals or communities to avoid or provide inaccurate information during the enumeration process.

(iv) Inadequate Technology and Training: Insufficient use of technology, outdated census methodologies, and inadequate training of enumerators can contribute to errors in data collection and processing. Lack of modern tools and skills may result in inaccuracies and inconsistencies in census figures.

(v) Migration and Urbanization: Ongoing migration patterns and rapid urbanization present challenges in accurately capturing population movements. People who move frequently, especially within urban areas, may be missed during enumeration, leading to an inaccurate representation of population distribution.

(vi) Security Challenges: Security concerns, especially in regions experiencing conflict or unrest, can hinder the accurate conduct of a census. Enumeration efforts may be disrupted, and certain areas may be inaccessible, resulting in undercounting and distorted demographic data.

(vii) Inadequate Public Awareness and Participation: Insufficient efforts to disseminate information about the importance and purpose of the census can result in a lack of awareness among the public. When people are not well-informed about the significance of participating in the census, they may be less likely to actively engage in the enumeration process.



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