2023 NABTEB GCE Government (OBJ & Essay) Answers [7th December]
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Thursday 7th December, 2023 




INSTRUCTION: Answer FIVE questions in all; at least TWO from each part.

PART I (Answer at least TWO)

A state is a geographical territory occupied by a group of people of different cultural background with an organised government. These people are entirely free from external control and intervention and must be ready to obey the decisions and laws of the constituted government. There is the possibility of the government using force in a state to secure obedience from the people. Examples of such states are; U. S. A., Britain, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Russia, Canada, etc.

(i) Defined Territory: A state must have clearly defined and recognized borders that distinguish its geographical area from other states. The territory can include land, water, and airspace.

(ii) Permanent Population: A state must have a population that resides within its borders. This population may consist of citizens and non-citizens, but there must be a permanent community of people.

(iii) Government: A state needs a system of governance that exercises authority and control over its territory and population. This can take various forms, including democratic, authoritarian, or other types of government structures.

(iv) Sovereignty: Sovereignty refers to the state's supreme authority to govern itself without interference from external sources. It implies independence from other states and international bodies.

(v) Recognition: For practical purposes, a state often requires recognition by other states and international entities to be considered legitimate. Recognition is a political and diplomatic acknowledgment of a state's existence.

(vi) Capacity to Enter into Relations: A state should have the ability to engage in diplomatic and foreign relations with other states. This includes the power to make treaties, form alliances, and participate in international organizations.


(i) Law-making: This is the major function of the legislature. This law making directs and helps to guarantee peace and stability of a country.

(ii) Approval of appointments: Appointments made by the executive must have the approval of the legislature, e.g. ministers, ambassadors, etc.

(iii) Control of the executive: It has the power to impeach or pass a vote of no confidence on the executive especially when the executive is acting in excesses or unconstitutionally.

(iv) Amendment of the Constitution: In most modern states, it is the legislature that amends the constitution.

(v) Judicial functions: The legislature at times performs judicial functions. In Britain, the House of Lords is also the highest Court of Appeal. Legislature also has the power of investigation.

(vi) Checks:The activities of most government parastatals and agencies are checked by the legislature.

(vii) Policies of the executive: Policies proposed by the executive are approved by the legislature before their implementation.

(viii) Control of public expenditure: It passes the needed appropriation bills, giving it the mandate to control the finances of the state.

(ix) Ratification of treaties: It ratifies all treaties made by the executive and also declares wars and state of emergency, etc.

(x) Ventilation of grievances: Legislature is a better forum for the ventilation of grievances.

(xi) Removal of Judges: The legislature can recommend to the executive for the removal of any erring judge.

Political participation involves a voluntary participation of individuals or citizens in the political activities of their country. It is a situation process where the citizens have the opportunity of electing their political leaders and taking part in the decision making in their country.


A Republican form of government is one that has the president as the Head of state. He is elected by the people and has a fixed term of office. The office is an elective post and not hereditary, as in a monarchy. In some countries, the president as the head of state performs ceremonial functions but as executive president, he is both Head of State and government e.g. U.S.A.

(i) The Head of state is known as the president and is elected for a fixed term of office.
(ii) Political independence is a must for a Republican state.
(iii) Political leaders can only stay in office for a stipulated term e.g. four or five years.
(iv) The law-makers are entirely elected by the people.
(v) There is existence of rule of law.
(vi) There is popular sovereignty. The people have the final say in choosing political leaders.
(vii) Everybody is equal before the law.
(viii) There is the independence of Judiciary
(ix) There is free press and freedom of association and of forming political parties.

Proportional representation is a process adopted in electing representatives in multi-member constituencies and is used to secure representation in the legislature. Every association or political party gets seats in proportion to the percentage of votes cast. The more the percentage of votes cast, the more the seats that will be allocated to the favourable party. This system results in producing representation for diverse interest groups in a locality or community.


(i) There is the Board of Directors to manage the affairs of the public service while the Director-General (Permanent Secretary) is the chief executive and administrative head of the ministry in the civil service, while the political head is the minister.

(ii) Public service can go for loans, the civil service cannot.

(iii) The ministry or the civil service is bureaucratic while the public service takes immediate action.

(iv) The Director General or permanent Secretary is the administrative head of a ministry while a general manager is appointed for the public service.

(v) The responsibilities of a minister is limited in the public service and not in the civil service.

(vi) The civil service is not a profit making outfit while the public service makes profit.

(vii) Workers in the ministry are employed by the public Service Commission while those of the public service are appointed or employed by the Board of Directors.

(viii) The workers in the public service enjoy better conditions of service than those in the civil service.

(ix) The civil service pays its revenue into the consolidated fund while the public service does not pay.

(x) The functions of the civil service are for the provision of amenities e.g. water, light, etc.

(xi) The civil service depends directly on annual., budget while the public service is not tied to the executive annual budget.

(xii) Workers in the civil service are known as civil servants while those in the public service are called public servants.

(i) Poor conditions of service: The poor condition of service in the civil service is responsible for non-attraction of qualified personnel into the service. Incentives for hard work are virtually absent.

(ii) Bureaucracy or Red Tapism: This works against the effectiveness of the civil service because issues are excessively adhered to.

(iii) Lack of qualified personnel: There is movement of workers from the service to other sectors for better and more attractive working conditions.

(iv) Political instability: This has resulted in constant changes of top government officials e.g. ministers, Director-General/Permanent Secretary, etc. The issue of decision making and implementation are equally affected.

(v) Tribalism: This has become the determinant factor in the employment of workers into the service.

(vi) Political interference; The civil service is no more given a free hand to run its affairs due to constant interference from the governments.

(vii) Bribery and corruption: These have affected the efficiency of the civil service. Most civil servants fail to perform their functions as every attention is directed towards bribery before any work is done.

(viii) No adequate training facilities: Adequate facilities are absent in our locality and as a result some people are sent overseas for further training.

(ix) Unfriendly attitude of civil servants: At times, they are impatient and not ready to listen to people coming with complaints.

(x) Over staffing: There is redundancy, laxity and "I don't care attitude to work"; demonstrated by most of the workers in the service.


Government as an Academic Field of study involves the  study of political institutions of a state, its values, beliefs and doctrines about politics and the views of political thinkers about what defines or constitutes the welfare of the people in a state. These were part of the study of government in the early days. Government is a social science subject taught in higher institutions and it is referred to as political science. It is also taught in schools and colleges.
 The study of government, now a science involves the use of computers, research, statistics and analysis of data. The study of government embraces public administration, international relations, national governments, political behaviour, local government, comparative government, political theory, etc.
   Government also relates with other subjects like, history, economics, philosophy, sociology, psychology, mathematics, anthropology, etc. This relationship has facilitated the inter-disciplinary approach and in depth study of government.

(i) The constitutional rights of the citizens are enhanced and protected.

(ii) This is in compliance with the U.N.O's directive on the rights of man.

(iii) Violation of rights can easily be determined.

(iv) It gives opportunity to citizens to seek redress in courts whenever their rights are violated.

(v) It makes for easy reference whenever the need arises.

(vi) The government cannot effect unnecessary change in them. The powers of the political leaders are limited, thereby removing every trace of dictatorial tendency.


PART II (Answer at least TWO)

(i) Check and Balance on the Alaafin (Monarch): The Oyomesi acted as a system of checks and balances on the Alaafin, who was the supreme ruler of the Oyo Empire. They had the authority to investigate and challenge the actions of the Alaafin, ensuring that the ruler did not abuse power or act against the interests of the empire.

(ii) Judicial Functions: The Oyomesi played a judicial role by participating in the resolution of disputes and legal matters within the empire. They had the responsibility to adjudicate cases, administer justice, and ensure that the legal system was functioning in accordance with the established norms and customs.

(iii) Appointment and Removal of Officials: The Oyomesi had a role in the appointment and removal of high-ranking officials and military commanders within the empire. This involvement helped in preventing the concentration of power in the hands of a few individuals and contributed to a more balanced distribution of authority.

(iv) Custodians of the Law and Tradition: The Oyomesi served as custodians of the laws and traditions of the Oyo people. They were responsible for upholding and preserving the cultural and legal heritage of the empire. This function contributed to the maintenance of social order and the continuity of Oyo's cultural identity.

(v) Declaration of War and Peace: In matters of war and peace, the Oyomesi had a say in the decision-making process. They were often consulted before the empire engaged in military campaigns, and their approval was considered important for the legitimacy of such actions. This function helped ensure a collective and consensual approach to matters of national security.

(i) Administration or powers of governance was not an exclusive preserve of the Oba . He shared these powers with some of the senior Chiefs.

(ii) Decisions were not also taken only by the Oba. He consults with the Chiefs for approval.

(iii) If a reigning Oba dies, the king-makers had the power to select and enthrone a new one and, of course, different interests would be represented before selections were made.

(iv) Laws made for the people could only be enforced if it had the approval or support of the Oba and the Chiefs.

(v) There was separation of powers. Executive powers belonged to the Oba while the Chiefs exercised legislative powers.

(vi) The issue of checks and balances played a major role in enforcing order in the performance of the separated functions, e.g the Ogboni society was a check on the powers of the oba.

(vii) The Kingmakers, acting on the will of the people, could remove any erring Oba.


(i) Economic Development and Growth: The NPN government, under President Shagari, implemented policies aimed at fostering economic development and growth. The period witnessed various infrastructural development projects, including roads, bridges, and public buildings, contributing to the overall improvement of the country's infrastructure.

(ii) Agricultural Programs: The NPN government introduced agricultural programs to boost food production and self-sufficiency. Initiatives such as the Green Revolution were launched to modernize and enhance agricultural practices, with a focus on increasing crop yields and improving food security.

(iii) Educational Policies: The NPN administration prioritized education and implemented policies to improve access to quality education. Efforts were made to expand educational institutions, increase enrollment, and enhance the overall educational system. This included investments in schools, teacher training, and educational infrastructure.

(iv) Rural Development Initiatives: The NPN government initiated rural development projects to address the needs of rural communities. These projects were designed to improve living conditions in rural areas, including the provision of basic amenities such as water supply, healthcare facilities, and electricity. This focus on rural development aimed to reduce urban-rural disparities.

(v) Diplomatic Relations and Foreign Policy: The NPN government actively engaged in diplomatic efforts to strengthen Nigeria's relationships with other countries. It played a role in mediating regional conflicts and promoting peace in West Africa. Nigeria, under NPN leadership, contributed to peacekeeping efforts in the ECOWAS region, demonstrating a commitment to regional stability.

(i) Division of the country: The country was divided into three regions - western, eastern and northern regions.

(ii) Legislative powers: Powers were also divided, specifying items for the different tiers of government and giving the exclusive legislative powers to the central government.

(iii) Autonomy : The Regional Houses of Assembly were granted legislative autonomy.

(iv) Council of Ministers: Council of ministers was created and made up of four ministers drawn from each region, based on equal representation.

(v) Regional head of government: Premiers, as heads of government for the regions, were to be appointed by the governor.

(vi) The judiciary and public service: These two institutions were to be regionalised.

(vii) Electoral laws: These were to be provided for the regions differently.

(viii) Revenue allocation formula: There was the establishment of the revenue allocation formula.


(i) Principle of Non-Interference: The OAU's commitment to non-interference in the internal affairs of member states hindered its ability to actively address major crises within its boundaries. This principle, while respecting national sovereignty, limited the organization's capacity to intervene effectively in cases of political instability, human rights abuses, or conflicts within member countries.

(ii) Inter-State Boundary Disputes: Persistent boundary disputes, such as Eritrea/Ethiopia and Nigeria/Cameroon, have created challenges for the OAU. Inability to resolve these conflicts undermines regional stability and cooperation, as member states grapple with territorial disputes that divert attention and resources from broader continental issues.

(iii) Lack of Military High Command: The absence of a standing army within the OAU hindered its ability to respond promptly to conflicts. Without a centralized military force, the organization relied on member states' voluntary contributions, often resulting in delayed or insufficient responses to crises.

(iv) Existence of Sub-Regional Organizations: The emergence of sub-regional organizations like ECOWAS and Mano River Union decentralized efforts and resources, potentially diluting the OAU's influence. Sub-regional bodies often addressed issues more specific to their regions, leading to overlapping responsibilities and potential coordination challenges.

(v) Frequent Changes of Governments: The prevalence of coups d'etat in Africa disrupted political stability and undermined the continuity of OAU initiatives. Frequent changes in leadership created an environment of uncertainty, making it challenging for the OAU to implement long-term policies or effectively address continental issues.

(vi) Affinity to Former Colonial Masters: Some member countries maintained strong ties with their former colonial rulers, impacting their alignment with continental goals. This external influence could impede the OAU's efforts to foster unity and independence, as member states may prioritize external alliances over continental solidarity.

(vii) Ideological Differences: Divergent political ideologies among African countries created divisions within the OAU. Disagreements on key issues, such as governance models and economic systems, hindered cohesive decision-making and implementation of collective policies.

(viii) Fear of Domination: Concerns about domination by more powerful member countries fostered mistrust and hindered collaborative efforts. The fear of unequal influence among member states created obstacles to consensus-building and effective governance within the OAU.

(i) Military intervention in politics - West Africa is still bedeviled by military coups. This is seen as a major problem to the community's quest for good and democratic governance.

(ii) Language barrier: Member states are polarized into English, French and Portuguese languages. This is seen as a barrier to the unity of the peoples of the sub-region.

(iii) Fear of domination: Some of the smaller nations have great feat that big nations in the community might dominate them. Hence, there is mutual suspicion among them.

(iv) Influence of foreign powers and ex-colonial masters. Members states depend on them economically.

(v) Differences in currency: Different currencies create barriers in the exchange of goods and services in the sub-region.

(vi) Communication problems: Lack of good road network, railway, etc are barriers to economic integration.

(vii) Economic migrants: Citizens of the economically disadvantaged states migrate to the economically advantaged ones.

(viii) Inter-state conflict: Inter-state boundary disputes often slow down unity and cooperation within the community.


(i) Introduction of Federal System: The Lyttleton constitution laid the groundwork for a federal system of government in Nigeria, acknowledging the diverse regional interests and providing a framework for cooperative governance between the central and regional authorities.

(ii) Implementation of Direct and Indirect Elections:
This feature of the constitution reflects a nuanced approach to electoral representation, introducing direct elections in some regions and indirect elections based on adult male suffrage in others. It aimed to address the varied socio-political landscapes of different regions.

(iii) Appointment of Nigerian Ministers: The constitution marked a significant departure from previous colonial practices by allowing Nigerians to hold ministerial positions with full responsibilities. This move symbolized a shift towards greater self-determination and participation in the governance of the country.

(iv) Establishment of Legislative Leadership: By instituting the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker, the constitution aimed to provide clear leadership structures within the legislatures, fostering orderly and effective legislative processes at both the federal and regional levels.

(v) Decentralization of Legislative Powers: The constitution granted regional legislatures the power to legislate on matters that directly affected them, reducing the central government's interventionist role. This decentralization aimed to respect regional peculiarities and foster a sense of autonomy.

(vi) Regionalization of Civil Service and Judiciary:
The regionalization of the civil service and judiciary acknowledged the unique needs of each region. It allowed for the administration of justice and public services tailored to the specific requirements and aspirations of the diverse regions within Nigeria.

(vii) Elevation of Governor Status: Administrative Roles
The change in nomenclature from Governor to Governor-General signified an elevation of administrative responsibilities, emphasizing the increased importance of the role within the federal structure and international context.

(viii) Creation of Regional Premiers: The constitution created the office of premiers, empowering regional leaders with significant executive authority. This move aimed to enhance regional self-governance and strengthen regional leadership structures.

(ix) Separation of Lagos and Southern Cameroons: The separation of Lagos and Southern Cameroons from their respective regions underscored the constitutional reorganization of administrative boundaries, recognizing unique regional dynamics and facilitating more tailored governance approaches in these areas.

(i) Absence of Central Prime Minister: The absence of a central prime ministerial position led to challenges in establishing a clear executive leadership at the federal level. This gap in central leadership contributed to difficulties in coordinating national policies and initiatives.

(ii) Undemocratic Ministerial Selection: The appointment of ministers rather than their election undermined democratic principles, limiting the accountability of these officials to the electorate.

(iii) Retention of Regional Structure:
The decision to maintain three regional divisions failed to address the demands for increased regional autonomy and the creation of additional regions.

(iv) Governor's Veto Powers: The retention of veto powers by governors limited the autonomy of regional governments and impeded the smooth functioning of the federal system.
It hindered the development of a more decentralized and balanced political structure.

(v) Lack of Independence Plans: Absence of Plans for Eventual Independence Status or Self-Government
The failure to incorporate provisions for eventual independence overlooked the importance of a clear roadmap for Nigeria's self-governance.

(vi) Absence of Second Chamber: The absence of a second chamber limited checks and balances within the federal system, potentially leading to hasty and unconsidered legislative decisions.

(vii) Lack of Uniform Electoral System: The absence of a standardized electoral system hindered the establishment of fair and consistent electoral practices.

(viii) Retention of Official Members:  The retention of official members may have perpetuated a lack of political inclusivity and hindered the formation of more representative legislative and executive bodies.




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