2023 NABTEB GCE Literature (Drama & Poetry) Answers [7th December]
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Tuesday 28th November, 2023
Paper I: Prose & OBJ: Literature in English (12:30pm-2:30pm)
Thursday 7th December, 2023
Papper II: Drama and Poetry (4:15pm - 6:15pm)


Quest for power and dominance is another main theme in the play where everyone is poised to be in power and this leads to the tragic death of Madam Yoko. It is the same apparent dominance and quest for authority that makes Lamboi and Musa frustrate Yoko’s reign as a chief.

Firstly, when Gbanya assumes the chiefdom as the arrowhead of Senehun,

Yoko constantly reminds him of the promise to pass the chiefdom to her when he’s no more but Lamboi and Musa are totally not in support of it.

Yoko’s urge to be in charge of Senehun makes her vowed not to have children. She also sacrifices her motherhood for the future throne and she commits suicide when she becomes very uncomfortable with the turns of events in the later Kingdom of Moyamba she relocates to.

This act of dominance can be traceable to the Governor who also makes Gbanya and Yoko’s reigns unstable and fluid Rowe, the Governor keeps interfering with the affair of Senehun even when they sing and adore him, spoil him with all nicety and gifts. He not only humiliates Gbanya in the presence of his people, but also divides the boundary towards the end of the play. Rowe represents colonial domination and subjugation in the play because he not only disrupts Gbanya’s reign but also extends it to Yoko and this also adds to the reason why Yoko takes her own life. She acknowledges this and laments bitterly before she dies.
Also, Bargain for power is also seen in the character of Lamboi and Musa as both stand against Yoko becoming the next Chief in Senehun at the beginning. Lamboi sets forth at dawn to disrupt Gbanya’s reign, to force himself on the throne, just as she said “I fear that woman, Yoko. If he lives longer, she might be able to convince him to pass the chiefdom to her.” Lamboi, therefore, forms intrigue in an underhand manner to kill Gbanya for fear of handing over the chiefdom to his wife, Yoko. They succeed in exterminating Gbanya, but Lamboi failed to assume the throne. Their next plan is to kill Jeneba and mislead the people to believe that Yoko used her as a sacrifice to gain more power in order to subdue the Governor or put him in her palm.

The play examines the clash of two distinct cultures that is the conflict between African and European customs or ways of life. Baroka who is the proponent of traditional culture tries hard to prevent the advent of western civilization and foreign values into llunjunle as the selfish Baroka bribes the surveyor to divert the railway track away from llunjunle, thereby foiling the intending progress in the village. This clash is also seen when the stranger from Lagos, (Photo Journalist), the seat of western civilization, makes the indigenous culture less attractive as he causes a stir during his visit to llunjunle. The people describe his camera as a “one-eyed box” and his motor car as “the devil’s own horse”. The photographs on the cover page and inside of Lagos Man’s Magazine boosts Sidi's ego and this almost makes her overlook her union with Baroka, for she begins to attract more importance to her growing fame.

Also, the main conflict in the play shifts away from tradition versus modernity to individuality to personal worldview. For instance, Baroka’s proposed non-functioning stamp-making machine”, a strange machine is a symbol of modernity which he brainwashes Sidi with initially to final seduction scene in order to woo her. He also assures Sidi that the stamp will soon start producing Sidi’s image. Baroka sincerely hopes to also transform and improve the image of llunjunle and save it from the mockery of town-dwellers.

In the end, African value is enthroned especially when Baroka employs his trick to woo and marry Sidi, the jewel of llunjunle.

The expression of anger is known as aggression and people feel angry in order to reduce feelings mainly aroused by frustration. Jimmy porter is an aggressive young man angry at almost every British institution such as the church, the monarchy, the government and he rants against “posh” Sunday papers. Although he buys them every weekend, he is against any form of upper class manners, but he married a girl from the class which he hates. As a result of his class hatred, Jimmy attacks Alison both verbally and physically throughout the play since his wife reminds him of everything he despises from the beginning. Jimmy verbally attacks Alison because he wants her to answer a question about an article in the newspaper but Alison defends that she has not read it yet. He humiliates and attacks Alison and her brother, Nigel.

Contrary to Jimmy, Alison does not give any direct reaction against Jimmy’s aggressive behavior. She prefers to maintain silence. She knows that if she gives any reaction to his attack, he will be triumphant. Alison’s silence and seeming ignorance can also be considered as a weapon in order to save her from Jimmy’s assaults. Jimmy not only attack Alison but also other members of her family and her friends. He calls her parents “Militant, arrogant and full of malice”. He labels her friends “sycophantic phlegmatic and of course, top of the bill pusillanimous.

Jimmy also in frustration hates Alison’s mother because she is dedicated to her middle classrooms and her concern about her daughter marrying a man beneath her social status that she even hire a detective to watch Jimmy because he does not trust him. This makes him angry at middle-class value. He therefore calls Alison’s mum “old bitch” and she should be dead.

Jimmy also attacks Helena verbally because she also represents the class he detests. When Helena and Alison are about to go out, Jimmy accuses Alison of letting Helena influence her to go to church as he yells “you Judas! You phlegm” He describes Helena as a “Saint in Dior’s Clothing”. Throughout the play, Jimmy expresses physical aggression towards Alison, that is when he pushed Cliff on the ironing board and Cliff falls against Alison and she burns her arm on the Iron.

Consequently, Jimmy’s anger against every member of the play can be attributed to his rough and thorny background and his loss of childhood. Jimmy is frail and insecure because he says he was exposed to death, loneliness and pain at a very early age. He watched his father dying when he was ten, and he claims that he knows what it is to lose someone. He thinks that Alison does not know anything about loss or the feeling of helplessness. Jimmy therefore is also insecure because he married a woman that is above his status. Jimmy therefore was forced to deal with suffering from an early age. Alison’s loss of childhood also is best seen in the way that she was forced to grow up too fast by marrying Jimmy. His youth is wasted in the anger and abuse that her husband levels on her.

Use of symbolism:

(i ) “Bear and squirrel game”:
This game of bear and squirrel is simply meant to escape the harsh and cruel realities of life in the tension and the failure of marriage between Alison and Jimmy for a short time. It also helps in reconciling the couple of the end of play. The bear is associated with Jimmy, and the squirrel with Alison. The fact that they keep stuffed animal versions of the bear and squirrel in the apartment reflects a childlike innocence that these characters find it difficult to maintain their marriage.

(ii) “Church bells”:
The church bells symbolize middle class morality that Jimmy finds oppressive and unacceptable. Helena likes this version of morality which specifies that something is clearly right, while others are wrong and “sinful”. The chiming of the church bell makes Jimmy sick and gets him more resentful. He curses and yells when he hears them, thereby reflecting his anger at this system of morality.

(iii ) “Trumpet”:
Jazz which has traditionally been protest music is associated with the working class. It symbolizes Jimmy’s desire to be a voice of resistance in society. It is also a symbol of loneliness and alienation in Jimmy’s world.

(iv) “Newspapers”:

In act 1 and 3, Jimmy and Cliff read newspapers and these papers are symbols of Jimmy’s education. They help to mimic the habit of upper class university educated elite. Jimmy also uses newspaper articles as a way to belittle the intelligence of Cliff and Alison. His relationship with these newspapers also shows his double relationship to his educational status. He confesses that the newspaper makes him “feel ignorant” and he often mocks “posh” papers. Which in his mind are out of touch with the real concerns of working class men like him?

(v) Jimmy’s pipe:
Pipe is an upper class symbol and this makes Jimmy wants to associate with upper class instead of working class where he actually belongs. Pipes are associated with old educated, university professors, and Jimmy’s pipe is a way for him to dominate scene and assert himself as a rebellious force in the world to rebel against upper class.

(i) Troy:
Troy is the central characters or protagonist of August Wilson’s Fences. He is a years old father of Lyons and Cory and Rose’s husband, a garbage collector by profession. The story revolves around him as an African American man who works for the sanitation department, lifting garbage into trucks. He is also a former baseball player in the Negro leagues, and he is unable to play for major leagues, not until the major league started to accept blacks.

Troy is hardworking, strong, disciplined and fond of telling imaginative and compelling stories about death. Troy’s year of hard work which only yields meager and fruitless progress demoralizes him. He often fails to provide the needed love, care and support that could mean the whole world for his family as the family’s breadwinner. Troy is also narrow minded and his parochial views about life create conflicts with every character in the play. This results to his inability to accept others choices in life when they differ from Troy’s philosophy.

Troy rules his household with iron hand; for he aggressively disagrees with Lyons’ decision to be a musician and Cory’s decision to play football in college as well as Rose’s habit of playing the numbers. Troy lives in dual existence; with two opposing ideas. His life’s history is half of hope and half filled with disappointment. He once lived at the top of his career opportunity as a baseball player and later ended up as a garbage collector. He does the opposite of what he preaches and that is why he could hide his extramarital affairs with Alberta who died during childbirth.

(ii) Rose:
Rose is Troy’s devoted wife and mother of his second son, Cory. She is a forty three years-old African-American house wife who volunteers to attend church regularly. She is ten years younger than Troy. Her devotion to him stem from her recognition of the possibilities of her life without him.

She is a woman with excellent spirit and great understanding. She recognizes Troy’s spirit as a fine and illuminating one and she either ignores or forgives his faults, only some of which she recognizes, Rose’s request that Troy and Cory build a fence in their small dirt backyard comes to represent her desire to keep her loved ones close to her with tender care while she is doing everything to unit her family; Troy is busy destroying the family’s dreams and aspiration.

(iii) Cory:
Cory is Troy and Rose’s teenage son. He is an ambitious young man who has the talent and determination to realize his dreams. He is a very respectful and compassionate nephew to his disabled uncle Gabriel. He is quite passionate and optimistic about great future to become a footballer and he needs to actualize it through his father’s support and love, but contrarily unmet by the pessimism of his father. His father, Troy believes that he can’t excel as a result of racism. He prefers him to read more books to get promoted in his A & P Job, or learn how to fix cars or build houses or learn a trade. Troy views Cory’s career aspirations as idealistic and detached from the realities of a racist society where the white dominate world of sports will not support his son’s dream of becoming a footballer.

(iv) Maxson:
Maxson Gabriel or Gabe is Troy’s brother who is mentally imbalance. He was injured in the Second World War, where he received a head injury that required a metal plate to be surgically implanted into his head. He’s given a cheque from the government, the part which Troy used to buy the Maxson’s home which is the setting of the play. Gabriel wanders around the neighborhood carrying a basket and singing. He sees himself as angel Gabriel who opens the gates of heaven with his trumpet for Saint Peter on Judgment Day.

However, just before the play begins, Gabriel has moved out to live with a lady named Miss. Pearl, Troy who is afraid that he will no longer get Gabe’s disability cheque commits him to a mental hospital and continues to receive half of Gabe’s cheque.

In the poem, the poet attributes rage or uncontrolled anger to be the chief destroyer of human virtue and a thief that steals away our good morals such as happiness, joy and good life. Anger does not yield any good fruit, but rather it will “breach your sails with arrows unseen” – meaning, it exposes you to danger, “Which would blot out that brief”: reduces your lifespan. “No! Rob you of your life, rage is chief”. Here the persona sees anger as the most important vice that can ruin your life totally. “Rage drags rags after you” – anger breeds shame and spoils all other good virtues such as kindness, laughter, sweetness and light.

The poet therefore calls rage thief because it spoils so many good things in you. It is the enemy of equanimity, because it steals away your gentleness, kindness, calmness and loveliness. Anger also makes one unstable in character and does not allow one compose oneself especially under stress. “Rage spells calamity” – meaning, it engineers other evils like hard luck, violence, murder, insecurity and regret.

The use of situational irony in Onu's poem "A Government Driver on his Retirement" is evident through the contrasting outcomes faced by the retired government driver. The poem primarily focuses on the calamitous conclusion of the driver's thirty-five years of dedicated service to his nation. Despite the celebration, recognition, and the gift of a new car from the government, the retired driver meets a disastrous fate.

The irony lies in the fact that the very driving skills that earned him acclaim and reward ultimately lead to his untimely demise. The careful, disciplined, and teetotaler driver, who adhered to duty rules and regulations for decades, succumbs to the lure of alcohol in a moment of reckless celebration. This tragic turn of events starkly contradicts the disciplined life the driver led throughout his years of service.

While the government and well-wishers celebrate his retirement and reward him with a brand new car, the driver's decision to indulge in alcohol, something he had abstained from for years, becomes the cause of his downfall. The poem serves as a cautionary tale, highlighting the danger of abandoning a responsible and careful lifestyle after achieving success.

The irony is further emphasized as the poem underlines the contrast between the driver's admirable record of over three decades without a single road mishap and the sudden loss of his life due to imprudent choices. This situation is both pitiful and ironic, revealing the tragic consequences of abandoning one's principles and succumbing to a devil-may-care attitude, even after years of meritorious service.

It is true that perfect love is not found anywhere on earth but in the poem, “The Good Morrow”. The persona admits that true love that defies all weather still exist using far-fetched imagery for his description. The metaphysical love poem begins with a question asked by the two lovers, the poet and his beloved he asks “what thou and I did still we love? “The question is meaningful and needs no answer because it clearly indicates that the life they led before falling in love was no more than “Country pleasures” like that of a child sucking his mother’s breast for survival. A child who is sucking his mother’s breast is never aware of the world around him.

However, perfect love in the poem knows no boundary because everything seems perfect. It probably means that the persona’s former love life was in shambles and full of deceit compared to the new found love which is more perfect than life itself. The poet therefore goes further to compare himself and his beloved with the use of conceit; farfetched metaphor of “Seven sleepers den” to express that their entire life was nothing more than unconscious and meaningless life. Had they enjoy any fort of pleasures and joy, those were nothing but figment of imagination. The poet opens up his heart in the praise of his beloved “If ever any beauty I did see; which I desired, and got.t’ was but a dream of thee”

The poet says good morrow (good morning) to the “Waking souls” of himself and his beloved because their past life, before they met was all shadow and darkness of sleep. It is now after meeting his beloved, that he feels his waking soul. The poet wishes to ignore the world “And makes one little room an everywhere”. The poet wishes to ignore the world around him because he wants to be focused on his perfect love alone. Even the sea discoverers may continue to discover new world and maps continue to spread, but the persona must possess one world and maps continue to spread, but the persona must possess one world of their new found union of true love.

(i) Diction: The language of the poem is simple, and it can be read and understood by an average reader. The poem is written in prose and verse form. It is the prose-like nature that makes the language straightforward, but the syntax and word-choice in the middle part is a bit complex. The poem is narrative and descriptive in nature. Note that the plural form of” Magi” is “the Magi”

(ii) Personification: use of human attribute to inanimate objects

(a) “With a running stream and a water-mill beating the darkness”

(b) “And three trees on the low sky”

(c) “The cities were hostile, the towns unfriendly.“

With all these human attributes are given to abstract ideas / or animate objects. This helps to project the experiences of the Magi in the poem.

(iii) Symbolism: Some of the instances of metaphorical representations in the poem are also symbolically relevant. Such words include:

(a) “The three trees” – symbolizes the three biblical trinity, which also represents God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. “Pieces of Silver” represents the thirty pieces of silver paid to Judas Iscariot for betraying Jesus Christ. “The white horse” is a symbol of purity. The horse is the symbol of Chris t and the “sloppy topography” shows the sinful and corrupt life of the people before God saved them. “The running stream” symbolizes baptism and it is water of purification. “Tavern” represents the house of Herod in the bible. “The journey of the Magi” represents the three wise men in the bible.

(iv ) Simile: “Hard and bitter agony for us, like Death” Here the persona makes the reader to understand the situation and difficulties they encountered in the journey to Bethlehem by equating it to death.

(v) Paradox: “Birth and death / But had though they were different and that the beginning of life marks the journey to the grave.

(vi) Irony: There is verbal irony:”I should be glad of another death”. This is quite ironic because despite all the challenges and difficulties encountered by the magi they would still like to repeat the journey because they feel that the benefits of the journey cannot be compared to the pains (salvation of their souls).




(Answer ONE Question From This Part)

(i) Francis:

Francis, in Buchi Emecheta's "Second-Class Citizen," serves as a complex character whose role encompasses the embodiment of patriarchal norms, the pursuit of educational aspirations, and the portrayal of cultural clashes. As a representation of traditional Nigerian societal expectations, Francis becomes a pivotal figure in understanding the gender dynamics prevalent in the story.
His character is a product of a patriarchal society, reflecting the deeply ingrained norms that dictate the role of women. Francis's treatment of Adah within the confines of their marriage becomes a microcosm of the broader societal expectations placed on women to be submissive and conform to traditional gender roles. His interactions with Adah highlight the power dynamics within the relationship, illustrating the challenges women face when navigating a society that inherently places them in a subordinate position.
The narrative takes a significant turn when Francis, driven by his ambition for a Western education, leads the couple to migrate to England. This educational pursuit becomes a symbol of broader aspirations within Nigerian society—a quest for opportunities beyond the limitations of their homeland. However, the challenges Francis encounters in achieving academic success in a foreign land shed light on the struggles faced by immigrants adapting to new cultural and educational environments. His character becomes a representation of the clash between traditional values and the aspirations of a generation seeking a different, more globally connected future.
The cultural clashes experienced by Francis and Adah in England emphasize the difficulties inherent in navigating a new identity. Francis, grappling with the complexities of racism and a foreign culture, becomes a microcosm of the immigrant experience. The challenges he faces in securing stable employment and integrating into English society underscore the broader themes of displacement and the dissonance between one's cultural roots and the realities of life in a foreign land.

(ii) Adah:
Adah, the protagonist in "Second-Class Citizen," emerges as a compelling character whose role encompasses resilience, ambition, feminist themes, and the intricate balance between motherhood and personal aspirations. Her journey becomes a powerful exploration of the challenges faced by women in a patriarchal society and the complexities of navigating personal dreams within societal expectations.
Adah's resilience is evident from the beginning as she confronts the constraints of her marriage and societal expectations. Her determination to pursue education and career aspirations in the face of an unsupportive husband reflects a strong sense of self and a fervent desire for independence. Adah becomes a symbol of women's agency, challenging and transcending traditional gender roles.
The feminist themes embedded in Adah's character become a central focus of the narrative. Through her experiences, Emecheta delves into the societal constraints imposed on women, illustrating the struggle against traditional gender norms. Adah's journey becomes a vehicle for exploring women's rights and the limitations of patriarchy, contributing to the broader discourse on gender equality and female empowerment.
Adah's role as a mother adds depth to her character. The narrative navigates the complexities of balancing familial responsibilities with individual aspirations. Her sacrifices for her children highlight the challenges women face in reconciling traditional maternal roles with the pursuit of personal dreams. Adah becomes a poignant representation of the multifaceted nature of women's lives, challenging the societal expectations that often force women to compartmentalize their roles.

Buchi Emecheta's "Second-Class Citizen" vividly contrasts the lives of the characters, Adah and Francis, in Nigeria and England. These stark differences serve as a lens through which the novel explores themes of cultural dislocation, immigration challenges, and the impact of societal expectations on individual aspirations.

Life in Nigeria:
In Nigeria, the characters experience the weight of traditional gender roles and societal expectations. The patriarchal structure is evident in Francis and Adah's marriage, where Adah is expected to conform to the roles dictated by her husband and society. The cultural norms in Nigeria confine Adah to a subordinate position, limiting her opportunities for education and personal fulfillment. Adah's dreams of pursuing a career and education are stifled by the prevailing gender dynamics, reflecting the societal constraints on women during that period.
The social and economic challenges faced in Nigeria also play a significant role in shaping the characters' lives. Francis's pursuit of a Western education, while emblematic of broader aspirations in Nigerian society, is hindered by economic constraints and limited opportunities. The couple faces financial struggles, and Francis grapples with the pressures of providing for his family, reinforcing the economic disparities that shape their lives in Nigeria.

Life in England:
The migration to England represents a pivotal shift in the characters' lives. England, as a foreign and culturally different environment, introduces a new set of challenges and opportunities.
One prominent contrast lies in the exposure to Western values and the clash between traditional Nigerian norms and the more liberal societal expectations in England. Adah, in particular, experiences a newfound sense of freedom and agency. The cultural differences create a space for her to challenge traditional gender roles and pursue her educational and career aspirations. The novel highlights the transformative effect of the Western environment on Adah's self-perception and her ability to navigate societal expectations.
Economically, the characters face a different set of challenges in England. The struggle for stable employment and financial stability persists, but the context has shifted. The racial and cultural prejudices they encounter become significant hurdles in their pursuit of the so-called "better life." The novel depicts the harsh realities of being immigrants in a foreign land, facing discrimination and the challenges of adapting to a new social and economic landscape.
The contrast in the characters' lives between Nigeria and England serves as a commentary on the complexities of identity, the impact of cultural shifts on individual agency, and the challenges of adapting to a foreign environment. Emecheta skillfully uses these contrasts to explore the broader themes of immigration, cultural displacement, and the evolving roles of women in a changing world. The novel invites readers to critically examine the societal structures that shape individuals and the transformative power of new environments on personal

The link between Ghana and Nigeria in the Novel is potrayed in the search for identity and identity crisis
The novel explores the question of identity, that is, the individual characteristics by which a person is known or recognized and identity crisis which is distress orientation resulting from conflicting uncertainty about oneself and one’s role in society. The nature of search for identity in the novel is both psychological and ethical.
For example, the Ghana society has made it possible to displace the natives and non natives which also make them faceless without identity The more they try to assert their identity, the more the harsh economic policy bites them hard. Nii Talkie, for instance, suffers from identity crisis greatly. He is unsure of his society, and not dully recognized in his place of birth, Ghana and his nationality, Nigeria. In Ghana, he is branded as alien in spite of the fact that he bears Ghanaian name and lived in Ghana all his life. The society expects him only to come to his own country, Nigeria to meet another identity problem. Nii escapes economic hardship in Ghana and goes to Nigeria in search of his identity, his family in order to start life anew, he beams in elusive hope with the conviction that with a Yoruba tribal mark and a family name, he is sure that he can easily trace his roots in his family. His arrival coincides with a deportation order asking all aliens to leave the country.
However, Nii’s experience back in Nigeria is a direct testimony of how difficult it is for Africa to integrate in its post-colonial society. The society has lost the identity and also finds it difficult to define who is a Nigerian and who is a Ghanaian? What does citizenship entail? Although Nii does all that is possible to prove that he is a Nigerian, he is not accepted as one and risks begin deported back to Ghana where he is escaping. Everywhere, he attempts to prove his Nigerian Citizenship, he is confronted with the question of language. You can’t speak Yoruba, Igbo, Hausa, or any authentic local language, you see and you say you are a Nigeria?. His dogged determination to claim his identity becomes fruitless at some point and he persists. “I am not asking to be given citizenship. “I am claiming it as a right, look at my tribal marks. I have told you of my parentage, told you of my sad story, how I have deprived of parental care due to a barbaric un-Africa unconscionable law over there”.
Therefore, Nii numerous problems in Nigeria which are based on his being considered a stranger on African identity grounded on flimsy national differences. Nii expresses his disgust for identity problem through a symbolic ritual of blood covenant when he draw. Blood from incisions and put it in the midst of the thirsty and dying deportees whose only identity is their collective predicament. Nii’s struggle for identity sees the light of day when he eventually meets his sister, Mama.
In addition, the Ghanaian government of the day has also lost its identity and it is now faced with the problem of identity crisis because of its insensitivity and inability to make law that will benefit the general masses. The armed soldiers are used as puppet or war dog to promote anarchy. For instance, the government does not consider the plight of the masses before they enact law about the withdrawal from circulation of fifty cedis notes, the national currency’s highest denomination. And the new law about all savings in bank above fifty thousand cedis should be frozen is another heartless law that makes the government visionless. A certain woman named Auntie Joe who has lost forty thousand cedis dies of heart attack as a result.

The theme of discrimination in the novel is fully shown in through Xenophobia, which is a strong feeling of dislike, discrimination, hatred or fear of people from other countries. The novelist explores its phenomenon as a theme – its causes and consequences. In examining the causes of this discriminating hatred for one another includes bad government policy, vision less leaders, and the need to revenge and rewrite the past history.
In the novel, discrimination occurs in an attempt to right the wrong of the Ghanaian community at first. According to Mama the then opposition party accused aliens, that is, non-citizens of ruining the country, or the government of that time has made a mess of its management of the affairs of the Ghanaian economy and blamed their failure to do things right on us aliens as scapegoats. Life becomes quite unbearable to learn that Mama Orojo and her family are unwanted in a country they have come to regard to be their home. “We were aliens, they said and we had to regularize our stay” The journey to Nigeria is not without difficulties, as they stopped to bury someone each time the track stopped. She buried her father and mother on her way. Not heard about her grandma who refused to come with them.
Consequently, the economy of Ghana grows from bad to worse and the working personnel and technocrats are forced out of the country. The country begins to go through a terrible drought as a result of widespread crop failure, primary products fall on foreign markets and the burden of the country worsened. It is a period of economic gloom, a period when Nii Tackie even as assistant Manager in a bank has to do part time teaching job to survive. It is a period of panic economic measures like the withdrawal from circulation a fifty cedis notes, the national currency highest denomination which has made the people poor heart broken. This also sparks off a frosty relationship between the natives and the immigrants, leading to discriminating attack as a medium of communicating their discomfort and disapproval against foreigners. Both the natives and the non-natives alike are affected Aaron Tsuru, the proprietor of Ant Hill brick is forced to abandon his career as a result of his inability to secure loan from the bank to stay in business owing to bad government policy. Both Nii Tackie and Aaron Tsura abandon their dream careers to travel to Nigeria for greener pastures. Another consequence of discrimination is undue brutality victimization on the part of security personnel who take advantage of the situation to maltreat the citizens and non citizens alike. Such incident occurs at the market when a ten year old girl is being chased by an armed soldier for selling at above ‘control price’
Worse still, Nii and Aaron meet the highest discriminating attack in Lagos as soon as they get to Nigeria border. As all Nii’s efforts to survive in Ghana failed woefully, he decides to come to Nigeria to start life anew and also to search for his sister whom he has not seen for many years now. And this time around, the Nigerian government has also come out with a policy to flush aliens out of the country which is a reprisal of xenophobic attack Nii who is a Nigerian by blood is said to wallow in pain and anguish because he cannot speak any language. His tribal marks and family name could not save him. Nii soon finds out that it takes more than a tribunal mark and a family name to claim citizenship. He is therefore taken capture by an officer to work in a cassava farm to buy back his freedom in his own country. Nii had to pass through the trauma of fruitless search until fate eventually unite him and Mama Orojo, his sister in Nigeria.

(Answer ONE Question From This Part)

Nelly Dean formally know as Ellen Dean is the chief narrator of Wuthering Heights. She is a sensible, intelligent and compassionate woman. She grew up alongside Hindley and Catherine Earnshaw and she is deeply involved in the story she narrates. She has strong feelings for the characters in her story and these feelings complete her narration.
Nelly is a maid at Thrushcross Grange at the beginning. She gives Lockwood the full doze on the history of both houses, the Grange and Heights. She’s loyal to the Linton family of Grange and to certain members of the Earnshaw family, the owners of Wuthering Heights. That loyalty influence her narrations at times. She is also very opinionated, and she’s willing to express herself both positively and negatively. She really dislikes Heathcliff and it is revealed through her narration. She uses sassy comments about Heathcliff and other characters. She says Heathcliff looks like demon or a ghoul.
Nelly is romantic at heart and she exaggerates things to heighten the drama both as a character in the story and the person telling the story. For example, she encourages Heathcliff to invent a noble background for himself. Nelly is an unreliable narrator because she is telling her own version of the story that occurred at Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange. She is telling her own version of the story someone else hold her too. Everything Lockwood hears about the history of these people and these two houses is filtered through Nelly.
She is loyal to both Hareton Earnshaw and Cathy Linton because she raises them when their mothers died shortly after giving birth to them. Her attachment to them is strong, and her opinion of them is higher than others.
Nelly is information bearer, for she is able to make us understand the intensity of the love that Catherine feels for Heathcliff. She endures the tragic events of Wuthering Heights, witnessing love, betrayal, and revenge. Her continued presence at Thrushcross Grange makes her a resilient character who has weathered the storms of the narrative.
Nelly Dean's multifaceted role as a narrator, storyteller, mediator, and moral interpreter significantly shapes the plot of "Wuthering Heights." Her insider's perspective offers readers a glimpse into the complex and passionate world of the characters, though her subjectivity adds layers of complexity and occasional unreliability to the narrative.

Love is one major thing in Wuthering Heights and the nature of love is both Romantic and brotherly – not erotic. In the text, every relationship is strained at one point or another. Bronte’s treatment of love is best seen as good versus evil or love versus hate. The only most important relationship is the one between Heathcliff and Catherine. The nature of their love is beyond this world-spiritual plane and it supersedes anything available to everyone on earth.
However, their love seems to be born out of their rebellion and not mere sexual desire. Both of them do not fully understand the nature of their love, for they betray each other. Each of them married the person whom they did not love, as much as they love each other. Catherine and Heathcliff’s love is based on their shared perception and they are identical. For instance Heathcliff demonstrates this when Catherine dies and he wails profusely that he cannot live without his “soul” referring to Catherine.
Apart from the love between Catherine and Heathcliff which is destructive, that of Catherine and Edgar is proper rather than passionate. Theirs is a love of peace and comfort, a socially acceptable love, but it can’t stand in the way of Heathcliff and Catherine which is more profound connection. That of Cathy and Linton is an exaggeration. While Catherine always seems 46 just a bit too strong for Edgar, Cathy and Linton’s love is founded on Linton’s weakness, Linton gets Cathy to love him by playing on her desire to protect him.
Finally, there is a love between Cathy and Hareton, which seems to balance the traits of the other loves on display. They have the passion of Catherine and Heathcliff without the destructiveness, and the gentleness shared by Edgar and Catherine without the dullness in power.

The narrator of "Invisible Man" portrays societal ills, particularly racism, identity crises, and invisibility.
Racism, as depicted in the novel, obstructs individual identity. The protagonist, an invisible black man, grapples with defining his identity in a racist American society. Passing through various communities, from Liberty Paints to the Brotherhood, he faces societal expectations that force him into an inferior role.
In New York, the Liberty Paints plant exemplifies financial success achieved by diminishing the role of blacks. Racial discrimination is evident in the factory's operations, where whites heavily rely on blacks but deny them the final presentation of the product. Joining the Brotherhood, the narrator discovers its exploitation of him as a token black man rather than a partner in racial equality.

The narrator's invisibility is further emphasized by others' racial prejudices, limiting their perception of him. He realizes that the world is filled with blind people, especially white counterparts, unable or unwilling to see his true nature and the struggles of blacks in a white-dominated society. This limitation hinders his ability to act authentically. Initially embracing his invisibility, he later resolves to contribute to society, challenging the ironic racial dynamics at Liberty Paints.

The narrator's grandfather's advice underscores racial consciousness. He suggests outward compliance while harboring resentment to combat racial discrimination. The characters, including Tod Clifton, grapple with conflicting pressures and uncertainty about their roles in society. The narrator's quest for identity in a race-dominated society is evident from the novel's beginning.

While racism is a significant factor in the narrator's invisibility, other aspects contribute. Joining Liberty Paint Plant, the narrator hopes for equality but finds himself on an endless quest for identity. The Brotherhood initially offers a systematic solution to racism, prompting the narrator to structure his identity around it. However, he discovers their willingness to sacrifice him for selfish interests.

The novel unfolds as a black man's struggle to find his identity against the backdrop of societal pressure and racism. The narrator, using invisibility as a shield, expresses himself in an unsafe society, gaining praise for his actions only when invisible. The narrative weaves together themes of racism, identity, and invisibility, providing a nuanced exploration of societal challenges faced by the protagonist.

(a) Point of View: The novelist employs first person narration using the narrator as the central narrator throughout the novel. We understand the story to be his perception; he is speaking out about his experience and, as he says in the epilogue, hopefully shedding light on things we might not have realized. This treatment of other characters actually mirrors the way he himself has been treated; aside from the narrator. The narrator’s experience and narration is semi-autobiographic in nature.

(b) Satire: Ellison uses satire to critique various aspects of society, including racial stereotypes, the Brotherhood (an organization in the novel), and societal expectations. Employed to critique and expose the flaws, vices, or absurdities of society.

For instance Ellison satirizes racial stereotypes and prejudices prevalent in society. The protagonist's invisibility becomes a metaphor for society's refusal to see him as an individual beyond his race.

The Brotherhood, an organization the protagonist joins, is satirized for its political opportunism. Ellison critiques the exploitation of the protagonist's invisibility for the Brotherhood's gain rather than addressing systemic issues.

The novel satirizes societal expectations and the pressure to conform. The protagonist's invisibility results from society's refusal to acknowledge and address the realities faced by African Americans.


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