2022 NABTEB Literature (Drama & Poetry) Answers [25th June]
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Saturday 26th June, 2022
Literature-in-English Paper II (Drama & Poetry) 3.40p.m-5.40p.m (2hrs)

2022 NABTEB LIT-IN-ENGLISH (DRAMA & POETRY) QUESTIONS:

2022 NABTEB Literature (Drama & Poetry) Answers [25th June]

2022 NABTEB Literature (Drama & Poetry) Answers [25th June]

2022 NABTEB LIT-IN-ENGLISH (DRAMA & POETRY) ANSWERS:

SECTION A
(Answer ONLY ONE from this section)


(1)
Lakunle who represents the modern Nigerian man, wears Western clothing, speaks and behaves like an English man, and has been educated in a presumably British school. His supreme desire is to turn llunjunle into a modern paradise like the city of Lagos. He actively despises the traditional customs of his village and the people who pledge support to them. This is best exemplified when Lakunle refuses to pay Sidi’s bride price.

He goes further to call the tradition that demands the payment of bride price “an ignoble customs, infamous, ignominy / sharing our heritage before the world” and “to pay the price would be / to buy a heifer off the market stall / you’d be my chattel, my mere property”

However, Baroka on the other hand is an ant-modernist and his extreme desire is to preserve the village’s traditional way of life. Lakunle who finds Baroka’s lifestyle and views archaic, also describes how Baroka paid off a surveyor not to construct train tracks through the outskirts of llunjunle, thereby preventing the village from experiencing the modern world. Also, Baroka clearly demonstrates that he does not hate modernity or progress, and he does not want it imposed on him or bend the village’s way of life all in the name of civilization and modernity. Baroka wishes to add Sidi to his many wives which are fully accepted by the custom of the land, while Lakunle dreams of one wife according to the dictate of western culture. According to the tradition, when Baroka dies, Sidi will become the head wife of the new Bale, a position that would make her one of the most powerful women in llunjunle. As soon as she realizes that the idea of modern marriage may make her less powerful with the fewer rights she opts for traditional marriage. In the end, Baroka triumphs in the fight for Sidi’s hand in marriage. This shows African ways of life are still a lot more supreme than the western culture that appears more complex, complicated, and incomprehensible.
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(2)
(i)
BAROKA:

Baroka, the bale of Ilujunle, the village head, represents the old order. He is strongly reactionary and does everything to prevent the march of progress from coming near the village. He resorted to bribery to keep away the railway. But this success can only be temporary. He cannot hold back the hands of progress for all time. He had many wives, which is perfectly customary and is still vigorous at sixty-two.

He is a selfish old man sexually; he only covets Sidi because of her success in the photographs in the magazine and decides to have her as his new wife. He gets her by a low trick playing on her curiosity and mischievousness. We see him at the end expressing his happiness over his capture of Sidi – his victory and those of the old traditions over the new ones typifies by Lakunle.

(i) SIDI:
Sidi is the central character in the play, a beautiful girl, a true village belle. Lakunle is romantically in love with her, he wants to marry her but after the modern, Christian fashion. Sidi would only marry him any day he pays the bride price which he has refused to pay. She is a simple uneducated girl except in her own tribal traditions. Her mischievousness lands her in trouble when she teases Baroka and thereby loses her virtue. Sidi is a conservative girl who does not like Lakunle’s newfound love-making and his attempt to kiss her is repulsive to her. Sidi is certainly a flirt, a typical village girl; and being highly fascinated by her photographs on the cover of a magazine. She becomes swollen-headed, arrogant, and vain, rating herself above everyone else.


Sidi is typical of a certain class of society, she has her own virtues and vices; although she flirts, she holds strictly to tradition. She will not marry Lakunle, except he is prepared to pay the bride price. It seems that she marries Baroka simply because of her sexual experience with him. Indeed she rather spitefully crows over Lakunle at the end of the play, implying that Baroka was a better man than him.
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(3)
Dr. Samuel Rowe is the British Colonial representative who oversees the activities of Mende chiefdom. He is very boastful and authoritative. He dictates for the chief and also takes advantage of the power relinquished to him to exploit and impose his decisions on the people. Rowe plays both the executive and judiciary role in the Mende Kingdom. He also tries to maintain law and order and also interpret and punish the offenders.

Rowe not only looks down on Gbanya the chief but also humiliates him in the presence of his chief in council and his people. He dealt with Gbanya when he found out that the people participated in a revolt, and Rowe tells them to also stop fighting. As a punitive measure, Rowe charges Gbanya to pay a fine of fifty pounds in the equivalent of cattle and rice. “And the next time you disobey my orders, you will be arrested and locked up in jail in the colony” (20) he warns everyone and also fires his pistol in the air to scare, Lavalie, Ndapi, and Lamboi from retaliation or any reprisal attack. Rowe, therefore, represents the precolonial power.

Lamboi is Yoko’s blood brother who is also the villain or an antagonist in the play. He is wicked and power-drunk. He specializes in plotting evil against his own people. He seems to be introduced early enough in the play as a vicious and vindictive character. For fear of Gbanya’s handling over the chiefdom to Yoko, he connives with Musa the seer and Medicine man to poison and kill Gbanya to wrestle power with Yoko who has been mandated to be the potential heir apparent to the Mende Chiefdom. “I fear that woman, Yoko, if he lives longer, she might be able to convince him to pass the chiefdom to her. All I want you to do is to kill the chief and help me to prevent the chiefdom from falling into the hands of a woman.

He is also a special schemer and very manipulative Lamboi uses every available opportunity not only to eliminate Gbanya but also to destabilize Yoko’s reign as a Mende chief, especially when he’s fed up with Gbanya’s activities in the kingdom which ranges from his relationship with Rowe the Governor, Lamboi initially warned Gbanya not to undertake the caulker campaign but Yoko forced him to go to war because she needed slave to work in her farms.

On account of this, Lamboi vows to make the reign of Yoko miserable and chaotic. To achieve this aim, he plans to kidnap and kill Jeneba, Ndapi’s daughter and make the people believe that she used her as a sacrifice to acquire more powers. “Suppose we kidnap her, take her to the bush… then we will tell the warriors and the people that Yoko has sacrificed her to consolidate her positions as chief. We shall tell them that she buried the child alive. That will cause a lot of trouble. Then the people will force her to give up the chiefdom and go into exile. If she refuses, then measures will be taken to depose her. And if that fails, she will definitely be killed“ Lamboi pilots also take over the chiefdom. All his plans could not materialize as Yoko and Ndapi visit Gbeni to divine who is responsible for the killing of Jeneba Lamboi and Musa are therefore the prime murderers of Jilo’s daughter.

Lamboi has a sugar-coated tongue to incite and convince people to do what ordinarily they should not do. He is a betrayal as he does not only betrayed his blood sister, Yoko but also his entire Mende Community. He also resorts to cheap blackmail to win Musa over most times.
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(4)
In the play where everyone is poised to be in power and this leads to the tragic death of Madam Yoko. It is the same apparent dominance and quest for authority that makes Lamboi and Musa frustrate Yoko’s reign as a chief.

Firstly, when Gbanya assumes the chiefdom as the arrowhead of Senehun, Yoko constantly reminds him of the promise to pass the chiefdom to her when he’s no more but Lamboi and Musa are totally not in support of it. Yoko’s urge to be in charge of Senehun makes her vowed not to have children. She also sacrifices her motherhood for the future throne and she commits suicide when she becomes very uncomfortable with the turns of events in the later Kingdom of Moyamba she relocates to.

This act of dominance can be traceable to the Governor who also makes Gbanya and Yoko’s reigns unstable and fluid Rowe, the Governor keeps interfering with the affair of Senehun even when they sing and adore him, spoil him with all nicety and gifts. He not only humiliates Gbanya in the presence of his people, but also divides the boundary towards the end of the play. Rowe represents colonial domination and subjugation in the play because he not only disrupts Gbanya’s reign but also extends it to Yoko and this also adds to the reason why Yoko takes her own life. She acknowledges this and laments bitterly before she dies “And now I will know peace. Now I will never be used again”

Also, Bargain for power is also seen in the character of Lamboi and Musa as both stand against Yoko becoming the next Chief in Senehun at the beginning. Lamboi sets forth at dawn to disrupt Gbanya’s reign, to force himself on the throne. “I fear that woman, Yoko. If he lives longer, she might be able to convince him to pass the chiefdom to her. Lamboi, therefore, forms intrigue in an underhand manner to kill Gbanya for fear of handing over the chiefdom to his wife, Yoko. They succeed in exterminating Gbanya, but Lamboi failed to assume the throne. Their next plan is to kill Jeneba and mislead the people to believe that Yoko used her as a sacrifice to gain more power in order to subdue the Governor or put him in her palm.
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SECTION B
(Answer ONLY ONE from this section)
(5)

Jimmy is egocentric and egoistic; for he cares only about his own feeling and cares less about other people around him. He seems incapable of empathizing with his wife, even when she grieves over losing their baby. He takes her back only after he has realized her importance and completely abased herself to him. Jimmy is the “angry young man” of the play. Born working class but highly educated like his friend and roommate, Cliff but Jimmy have an ambivalent relationship with his educated status and yet frustrated that his education can do nothing to effect his class status. Jimmy is a frustrated character who wallows in his feelings of alienation and uselessness in post-war England. Jimmy is a bundle of contradictions. He is passionate about progressive politics but he treats his wife like slave, which might seem contrary to being progressive, Jimmy is filled with rage but the reason for this misery is not known to anyone.

Cliff is Jimmy’s friend, also from the working class. He is a gentle man to the core, a direct opposite of Jimmy porter. He does not have Jimmy’s fire, wit or bossy and bully attitude like him; he also lacks cruelty and verbal abuse on others. He is genuinely fond of Alison and shows his appreciation for her housekeeping efforts, and he tries also to defend her from Jimmy’s verbal and physical abuse. Cliff personally bandages Alison’s arm after she gets burnt.

Cliff is the most empathetic and sensitive character in the play, because he does not only share in others’ problem but also seems to understand what other people are feeling. He is like a go between Jimmy and Alison because he seems to sacrifice time to make things right for them, even when Helena thinks that she hates Jimmy, Cliff guesses that he really desires him, and he is the only person who senses Alison’s attempt to break up the marriage. Cliff’s hatred for Helena makes him to move out of Jimmy’s house when he learnt about her attempt to move in.
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(6)
The expression of anger is known as aggression and people feel angry in order to reduce feelings mainly aroused by frustration. Jimmy porter is an aggressive young man angry at almost every British institution such as the church, the monarchy, the government and he rants against “posh” Sunday papers. Although he buys them every weekend, he is against any form of upper class manners, but he married a girl from the class which he hates. As a result of his class hatred, Jimmy attacks Alison both verbally and physically throughout the play since his wife reminds him of everything he despises from the beginning. Jimmy verbally attacks Alison because he wants her to answer a question about an article in the newspaper but Alison defends that she has not read it yet. He humiliates and attacks Alison and her brother, Nigel.

Contrary to Jimmy, Alison does not give any direct reaction against Jimmy’s aggressive behavior. She prefers to maintain silence. She knows that if she gives any reaction to his attack, he will be triumphant. Alison’s silence and seeming ignorance can also be considered as a weapon in order to save her from Jimmy’s assaults. Jimmy not only attack Alison but also other members of her family and her friends. He calls her parents “Militant, arrogant and full of malice” He labels her friends “sycophantic phlegmatic and of course, top of the bill pusillanimous.

Jimmy also hates Alison’s mother because she is dedicated to her middle classrooms and her concern about her daughter marrying a man beneath her social status that she even hire a detective to watch Jimmy because he does not trust him. This makes him angry at middle-class value. He therefore calls Alison’s mum “old bitch” and she should be dead.

Jimmy also attacks Helena verbally because she also represents the class he detests. When Helena and Alison are about to go out, Jimmy accuses Alison of letting Helena influence her to go to church as he yells “you Judas! You phlegm” He describes Helena as a “Saint in Dior’s Clothing”. Throughout the play, Jimmy expresses physical aggression towards Alison, that is when he pushed Cliff on the ironing board and Cliff falls against Alison and she burns her arm on the Iron.

Consequently, Jimmy’s anger against every member of the play can be attributed to his rough and thorny background and his loss of childhood. Jimmy is frail and insecure because he says he was exposed to death, loneliness and pain at a very early age. He watched his father dying when he was ten, and he claims that he knows what it is to lose someone. He thinks that Alison does not know anything about loss or the feeling of helplessness. Jimmy therefore is also insecure because he married a woman that is above his status. Jimmy therefore was forced to deal with suffering from an early age. Alison’s loss of childhood also is best seen in the way that she was forced to grow up too fast by marrying Jimmy. His youth is wasted in the anger and abuse that her husband levels on her.
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(7)
Troy and Bono share their childhood stories in the South and tales of their relationships with difficult fathers. Their often-painful memories provide a context for understanding the similarities and differences of the generations separating Troy and Bono from Lyons and Cory. Troy’s father, like many blacks after the abolishment of slavery was a failed sharecropper. Troy claims that his father was so evil that no woman stayed with him for very long, so Troy grew up mostly motherless. When Troy was fourteen, his father noticed that the mule Troy was supposedly taking care of had wandered off. Troy’s father found him with a girl he had a crush on and severely beat him with leather reins, Troy thought his father was just angry with him for his disobedience, but proving Troy’s father was even more despicable, his father then raped the girl. Troy was afraid of his father until that moment.

At that moment, however, Troy believes he became a man. He could no longer live under the roof with a man that would commit these unacceptable acts, so he left home to be on his own, though he was homeless and broke, with no ties or family elsewhere. Manhood, to Troy, meant separating from his father because of conflict and abuse. The one attribute Troy respected and proudly inherited was a sense of responsibility. Troy’s father provided for eleven children, and Troy too became the sole breadwinner for his family.

Bono, however, remembers a different type of father. Bono’s father was equally depressed about life as Troy’s father, but unlike Troy’s father, Bono’s dad never provided a fathering or providing role to Bono and his family. Bono describes his father as having, “The Walking Blues,” a condition that prevented his father from staying in one place for long and moving frequently from one woman to the next. Bono could barely recognize his father and knew little about him. Bono says his father, like many other African-Americans of his father’s generation, was “searching out The New Land.” As blacks were freed from slavery and wanted to escape the often slavery-like conditions of sharecropping, many walked north in what history calls ‘The Great Migration,’ to pursue a better life in the North, particularly in urban centres. Because of Bono’s father’s unreliable personality, Bono chose not to father children, to insure he would not abandon a child like his father. But, contrary to Bono's fears, his father’s personality was not a family trait, but a choice he made to cope with his particular circumstances. Bono has been loyal to his wife, Lucille for almost eighteen years.

Lyons and Cory had very different upbringings, though their development into men does not fall too far from the tree of their father’s experience. Lyons spent his entire childhood growing up with only one parent, his mother, while Troy was in jail. Lyons feels he has the right to make his own life decisions and pursue his own dreams in music because he had more familial support and fewer hardships than Troy. Troy was not around to mould him into a responsible person, so Lyons tends to need to borrow money, though he does pay Troy back respectfully. Cory ends up leaving home in a similar conflict With Troy, like Troy had with Cory’s paternal grandfather. To Troy and Cory, becoming a man means leaving the man that raised you because of a violent conflict. This painful process of coming of age is confusing. For both Troy and Cory, the creation of their own identity when their role model is ‘creature of duality — part responsible and loyal, the other side, hurtful, selfish and abusive — proves a difficult model with which to mould their own identity as grown men with a more promising future than the father who threatens their livelihood.
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(8)
The play’s title Fences is symbolic of racial discrimination that ruled the 1950 society which involves the segregation between the black and white. The whites build wall or fence of hatred and keep the blacks out of it. For instance, it is this wall of discrimination that prevents Troy, a black man from finding success as a baseball player; his dream of becoming a professional baseball player and that of his son. Cory who wants to become a footballer could not materialize because of the literary fence built against the blacks.

The second fence mentioned in the play is the physical fence built by Troy and his son, Cory around Troy’s yard. It represents both the metaphorical fences that Troy builds around himself to keep people from getting too close to him, and he end up building a fence that keeps his entire family out. The meaning of the fences to keep people out and other people built fences to keep people in. Troy persistently criticizes and neglects his two sons, Cory and Lyons, which thus draws them away from him. Troy pushes Lyons away by refusing to hear him play his Chinese music” Troy is also said to neglect to build the fence that Rose ordered him. His negligence to build the fence stands for his negligence or irresponsibility towards his family. For Bono, the fence is symbolic of betrayal of Troy to his wife.
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SECTION C
(Answer ONLY ONE from this section)

(9)
(i) Smile: The poet makes judicious use of simile to drive home the point.
Examples include. “…like a snake without a head” “Tough like a tiger compassionate like a doe”“Transparent like a river mysterious like a lake” The poet likens our leader to possess the characteristics mentioned above, and to suggest the kind of leader we should aspire for in Nigeria. A lion is fierce, a doe is peaceful, and river is pure and blameless, while lake is tough and violent.

(ii) Paradox: “A leader who knows how to follow / followers mindful of their right to lead. “The above expression is paradoxical because a leader who has the desire to lead the people must put his/herself in the shoes of followers (masses). In the real sense, a leader can neither be a follower nor can a follower lead.

(iii) Allegory: The poem is an example of allegory. An allegory is a work of literature in which the writer in this case, the poet uses characters to represent ideas or a quality. In this poem, the poet uses animal characters to represent the leader and the followers (masses) in Nigeria. The lion symbolizes the ruling class or stalwart politicians, while the other animals from the antelopes to the snakes represent the religiously and ethnically diverse masses.

(iv) Metaphor: The poem has a lot of metaphors. For instance “The lion” in the poem is metaphorically referred to as the ruling class or diehard politicians in Nigeria who lay claim to the leadership position of the country. The lion is also a metaphor for dominance and violence as it possesses the attribute of lording it over other animals in the jungle. Other animals such as “hyena”, Giraffe”, zebra, “elephant”, are metaphors for shady politicians who contest for leadership posts, but unworthy in character, for they cannot adequately represent the people. Another set of animals in the forest such as “antelopes”. “Impalas”, elephant’s colleagues are metaphorically referred to the masses that suffer seriously from the misrule of the ruling class and yet cannot unite to fight against the oppressive politicians

Tiger is a metaphor for fear and rugged disposition, while “doe” and “river”. “Lamb” is metaphor for humility, peace and purity in heart.

(v) Assonance: There is a repetition of vowel sounds in line I: “… stake his claim”

“…p craves a place” in line 9

(vi) Alliteration: Some consonant sounds are therefore repeated in the lines of poem. Examples are “…pounce of his paws”, “… the pack points… ““The rhino too riotous” “ a hybrid of habit”, “A little bit of a lion/A little bit of a lamb.

(vii) Enjambment: There are run-on lines as each line of the poem runs into another from beginning to end of the poem. This helps to evaluate the subject matter of the poem.

(viii) Euphenism: A method by which the poet explores this subject-matter is the use of euphemism. Euphemism is the use of soften words or expression for a harsh condition.

(a) “Ferocious pounce of his paws” is a euphemism for violent attack of the lion.

(b) “The Lion” refers to do or die politicians.

(c) “The Giraffe craves a place in the front / But his eyes are too far from the ground” refers to vision less rulers who come to power without any special objective.

(d) “The elephant trudges into the power/ tussle”. Is a euphemism for forcefulness or do or die affair.

(e) “Like a snake without a head”.is a euphemism for a rudderless and hopeless society.

(f) A little bit of a lion/ a little bit of a lamb” refers to character check and suggestion for the types of leadership quality we need in Nigeria.

(ix) Use of Contrast: The poem makes use of contrast both thematically and structurally. The main idea in the poem is developed starting from the title and the body of the poem. “The leader represents politicians or the ruling class in our society, while the “led” refers to the masses or better still the citizens. The poem explores the leadership tussle that exists between those we voted or intend to vote into power and the followers (masses). The battle is between those leaders who feel that they are able and capable to rule their various communities, but their attributes and their self-acclaimed leadership skills are not to be counted on. Such characters in the poem include: “The Lion”. “The Hyena”, “Giraffe”, “Elephant”, “Warthog” and “Rhino”, their personality and attitude are questionable and cannot be entrusted with powers because of fear of power abuse. Other animals such as “The antelopes, impalas and “Pack” who stand as the masses have found them wanting with one form of shady character or the other and they both justify their reasons for not giving them chance to govern.

Also, the poet does not only contrast two ideas in the poem, but also wants a fusion of the contrasted characters or attributes. Hence, he says “A little bit of a lion/A little bit of a lamb/Tough like a tiger, compassionate like a doe”.

(x) Parallelism: There are both linguistic constructions in African poems which enhance the subject matter. One of these is the use of repetitive parallel structure which is termed parallelism. Examples include:

“A little bit of a lion.

A little bit of a lamb.

Tough like a tiger, compassionate like a doe.

Transparent like a river, mysterious like a lake”

The above repetitive parallel syntactic pattern heightens the tone of optimism and reassurance of a better leadership control especially when things are properly done.

(xi) Pun: using the word “shudder”. The persona uses the word “shudder” both as a noun and verb to create an effect. “Shudder” as a noun which means a shaking movement you make because you are cold, while the verb form means to shake because you are cold.

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(10)
The poem is written to adulate the beauty of the black woman whom she is believed to be everything to the persona. Her beauty is second to none.

Senghor refers to his homeland as a woman, who is both wife and mother. She is “the promised land”. The color of the natural black woman itself is life and her form is beauty. The speaker has grown under her tender care and his spirit has been nourished by her. Now that he has grown up and matured, he returns to her as if he was coming upon the Promised Land.

The beauty of the black woman is further extolled when she is seen as a lover, a woman whose flesh is like that of a ripened fruit. The poet compares her to be definite Savannah that shudders beneath the caresses of the east wind. Her color is life or her form is beauty. The persona calls her “naked woman” repeatedly four times to proclaim and acknowledge the fact that her beauty is attractive, inviting and irresistible. Her color is superb.

Africa is also described as a maternal figure or mother in whose shadow (roof) or tutelage the persona has grown as he suddenly realizes that it is about time to search endlessly to celebrate her true beauty by accepting our culture because Africa has passed through tough time of colonialism, discrimination and dehumanization in the hands of the whites over the centuries. African has relatively been adjudged to be backward, uncivilized and barbaric by the colonial master through the policy of assimilation which has compelled Africans to completely accept French culture and their ways of life. But Senghor’s poem “Black woman” seeks to liberate Africans from the shackles of such downgrading policy. This is because the persona sees African beauty and culture as something fascinating and enduring. Her contralto voice which sings of a song which can be understood by Africans (beloved) alone. And the fact is like a goddess buttresses the celebration of African culture and beauty.
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SECTION D
(Answer ONLY ONE from this section)
(11)

The speaker illustrates how the freed bird (white race) is untroubled. It also shows how the white race has the audacity to own and govern society with unjustly and with high-handedness. The whites have all the freedom in the world to do whatever they desire; for they can ‘leap’ and float like the river unlike the blacks. The whites are also poised to enjoy all the rights accrued to the citizens of the country unhindered or without molestation, but the blacks are shut out of the limelight and cannot partake or involve in the affair of the country. The white folks live in the best houses, go to the best Schools, the best hospitals and have best general welfare package. The poet concludes the last line of the first stanza with a note of exaggeration “And dares to claim the sky”. This shows how white demonstrates discrimination and injustice towards the blacks and also illustrates the nature of freedom bequeathed or allotted to the white which is beyond the sky. The caged bird is desperate for freedom.
In the second stanza, the poet describes the actions and conditions of the caged bird which is symbolic of African-Americans or blacks. They are stocked in the cage and can rarely see through the bars of rage. They can neither react nor retaliate because their wings have been clipped and attention is drawn towards the free bird which is the white counterparts. “The free bird think of another breeze” because he is free from oppression and social injustice in the society. The free bird is comfortable, and feels the warmth of the sun. He enjoys the best of the facilities “fact worms as “he names the sky his own”. Meaning the whites have dominated all the spheres of life; feel free to explore anything possible to foster the development of their society.
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(12)
Hopkins’ “Binsey poplars” offers a commentary on the current battle to save the environment from the mindless destruction by humans. He expresses his frustration, hopelessness and sadness when he visited a small town called “Binsey” in oxford after his education. The poet is not happy seeing the poplars cut down which has not only affected the environment, such as undue exposure to the sun ray, but also change the beautiful landscape.

The trees serve as a symbol for Nature and its tendency to be irreversibly changed by man's Intrusion. However, reverse is the case due to advancement in technology and increase in the civilization. The poet persona laments the fact that none of the trees are spared. They are all cut down without any consideration for the damage that this act could have on the natural world.

However, man’s destruction of nature by cutting down of trees generally results to climatic change which has become a bane in 20th century society. This can have a range of impacts on physical, mental and poor air quality. It can also affect both humans and animals in that environment. And that is why the persona laments bitterly in order discouraging humans from rendering poplars useless so as to secure our environment. That is also why the speaker compares the beauty of the poplar trees to that of a beautiful woman who is slender and tender, because nature is very attractive and fascinating. He also sees the act of cutting down those poplars as a way of removing one’s eyeball using hyperbole and personification to explain the importance of aspens in our environment.

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