2022 NECO Government (Essay & OBJ) Answers [18th July]
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NECO JUNE/JULY 2022 FREE GOVERNMENT (GOVT) QUESTION AND ANSWER ROOM

Monday 18th July 2022
Government (Objective & Essay)
2:00pm – 4:40pm

2022 NECO GOVERNMENT (ESSAY) ANSWERS:

VERSION ONE (1) ANSWERS


SECTION A
(Answer ONLY TWO Questions From This Section)

(1a)
A bill is defined as  a proposal of action discussed in the parliament and later signed to become a law by the President. A bill is not a law until it is signed into law by the executive.


(1b)
(Pick Any FIVE)

(i) First reading: This is the first stage of the bill. The bill is presented and it is required that its title be read by the clerk in the House. At this point, no opposition is registered and the bill is printed into leaflets for members to study.

(ii) Second reading: The bill is now presented, after the member or a minister introducing the bill moves that the bill be read the second time. At this stage, discussions are made concerning the principles of the bill.

(iii) The committee stage: At this stage, if the principles of the bill are approved by the House at the second reading, it is referred to one or other of the committees for detailed discussion, amendment and report.

(iv) The report stage: The committee's report, stating the suggestions of the committee to improve the bill, is presented and any member may move for amendment.

(v) Third reading: Only verbal amendments may be made here. At this stage, the bill is passed or rejected. A thorough examination is done on the bill in order to improve on the actual drafting of the bill.

(vi) The Upper House: If the bill is passed, it is sent to the Upper House where it passes through similar stages. (It first started with the lower House). Any further amendment suggested by the upper House will require both Houses (Lower and Upper Houses) jointly setting up a committee to iron things out.
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(2)
(Pick Any SIX)

(i) Immunity: Immunity is the special right granted to certain individuals in position of authority which shield them from prosecution while in office regardless of the offence committed. Such people are diplomats, presidents and governors. This is a limitation against the rule of law. Since the law sometimes provides for the immunity of some government officials, it makes it able for those officials to take powers into their own hands while in power. Take for instance, Nigeria protects some members of the government from being sued during the tenure of their office. This may be justified with the fact that it helps the government to concentrate on their responsibilities, but it actually discourages the doctrine of rule of law.

(ii) Administrative Tribunal: They are set up in some countries to try erring public officers. While ordinary citizens are tried in the ordinary courts.

(iii) Delegated Legislation: Delegated legislation refers to laws and orders promulgated by bodies other than parliaments. This is against the rule of law.

(iv) Special Courts: In Nigeria, tribunals are set up to try certain corruption cases of public officials. Those tried in this special court seldom felt they do not get fair hearing (Such as the Oputa panel).

(v) Over Crowding of the Court: Cases are delayed sometimes as a result of insufficient judges to handle cases and this result into keeping accused person for too long.

(vi) Ignorance and Poverty: Many die in silence as a result of ignorance as they fail to pursue their case in the court of law.

(vii) Emergency Period: Citizens of a country may be denied some of their human rights during state of emergency. Rights such as freedom of movement when curfew is declared during emergency.

(viii) Lack of patriotism: Lack of patriotism is also a limitation of rule of law because, where there is no patriotism, every citizen of the country will want to circumvent the law for a cynical purpose. This is the case in Nigeria, where almost every citizen want to have a share from the benefit of the corrupt practices of the government.

The point is that; where there is lack of the value for the application of the doctrine of rule of law, it will be probably impossible to make it feasible. Thus, for the doctrine of rule of law to be applicable in any political system, there must be a value system that is actually receptive to the doctrine.

(ix) Illiteracy: One of the pillars of this doctrine is the judiciary, and the responsibility of the judiciary is to interpret the law as it is. Now, the judiciary cannot bring cases of breach of the doctrine of rule of law to itself. It is the people that are supposed to bring cases to the judiciary to interpret what the law is. It is apparent that illiteracy can hinder the doctrine of rule of law because the lack of knowledge of the doctrine will make people to be silent when the government acts above the law.
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(3)
(Pick Any SIX)
(i) A citizen is a legal member of a state with full constitutional rights While Alien is not a legal member of a state
(ii) Citizen owes a duties and obligations to the state while  Alien does not owe any duty or obligation to the state
(iii) At the time of war a citizen can be compelled by the government to join military service. An alien cannot be compelled to undertake military activities.
(iv) A citizen cannot be driven out of his state while an alien can be asked to leave the country of temporary residence for various reasons such as illegal activities, expiry of visa period, etc.
(v) A citizen must be ready to defend his country when called upon to do so , while an Alien cannot be called upon
(vi) A Citizen enjoy political rights and participate in the functioning of government, i.e., exercise their right to vote, right to contest elections and right to hold public office. Aliens do not possess such rights in the state where they reside temporarily. They, however, enjoy certain civil rights, i.e., the rights to life, personal property and religion.
(vii) A citizen can take up any job of his choice in any area of job selection While An Alien cannot.
(viii) The life of a citizen is fully under the protection of the state While An alien life is not fully under the protection of the state.
(ix) The legal rights of a citizen are guaranteed Whole The right of an Alien is not guaranteed.
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(4)
(Pick Any SIX)
(i) Organise, undertake and supervise elections: 
Electoral commission organise, undertake and supervise all elections to the offices of the President and Vice-President, the Governor and Deputy Governor of a State, and to the membership of the Senate, the House of Representatives and the House of Assembly of each state of the federation; or any political office in that democratic state

(ii) Registration of Parties:
They register political parties  in accordance with the provisions of the constitution and act enabling them with such power.

(iii) Monitoring of the activities of political parties : 
They monitor the organization and operation of the political parties, including their finances; conventions, congresses and party primaries.

(iv) Accountability of funds: 
They arrange for the annual examination and auditing of the funds and accounts of political parties, and publish a report on such examination and audit for public information.

(v) Registration of voters:
Electoral commission arrange and conduct the registration of persons qualified to vote and prepare, maintain and revise the register of voters for the purpose of any election under this constitution.

(vi) Ensures political campaigns are done in accordance to law:
Electoral commission monitor political campaigns and provide rules and regulations which shall govern the political parties;

(vii) Political education:
They conduct voter and civic education; promote knowledge of sound democratic election processes; and conduct any referendum required to be conducted pursuant to the provision of any law or Act regulating the country and its conducts.

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SECTION B
(Answer ONLY THREE Questions From This Section)
(6a)
Local government authority may be defined as  district authority  or an urban authority established under the local Government (District Authorities) Act and the Local Government (Urban Authorities) Act. Local government authorities were created mainly to deal with matters of local concern e.g markets, feeder roads and motor parks.

(6b)
(Pick Any FIVE)

(i) Federal government involvement and service board commission: The federal government became directly involved in local government administration.There was the introduction of local government service board/commission in all the states.

(iii) Statutory functions and Single tier: The local governments were given specific statutory functions to perform.All the local governments were made all-purpose single tier local government.

(iii) Uniform system of local government: There was a introduction of a uniform system of local government throughout the country 

(iv) Key committees: Each council was mandated to have certain key committees like the finance and General purposes committee and any two committees

(v) Condition of service : The condition of service of local government staff was unified with that of their counter-parts in state and federal civil service.

(vi) Appointment and Grant: There was  the appointment of full time chairmen and supervisory councillors. Federal and state governments were made to give grant to local government

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(8)
(Pick Any SIX)
(i) The governor/Appointment of premier: The governor would no longer preside over the executive council business of the state.  The governor of the region should appoint as premier the person that commanded a majority in the House of Assembly.

(ii) Appointment of ministers/Eastern Religion : The governor would also appoint ministers on the advice of the premier. Eastern Religion was to have its own House of chiefs

(iii) Appointment of regional governor: The Queen would appoint a Regional Governor, on the advice of the United kingdom ministers with due consultation from the regional government concerned.

(iv) The central legislature (House of Representatives) membership: This House will have 320 members and was to be elected by universal adult suffrage in the East, West and the Southern Cameroon and by adult male suffrage in the North.

(v) Status of a region: The Southern Cameroon was to have the status of a region with its own premier. The Governor-general of Nigeria would however, continue to have ultimate responsibility for it as a trust territory.

(vi) The police/issues of minority : The police force would continue to be a federal institution.Commission of Inquiry to look into the fears of the minorities in the country.

(vii) The office of the prime Minister and Self government:  office of Prime minster  was created  as head of government of the federation. The Eastern and Western regions were to be self-governing in August 1957.

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(10)
(i) Administrative function:  The secretary-general oversees the UN Secretariat, which functions as the United Nations’ executive office and handles operations, including research, translation, and media relations. The Secretariat has a staff of more than thirty-six thousand.

(ii) Human Resources: The secretary-general appoints undersecretaries for approximately fifty UN posts, including the heads of funds such as the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and UN Development Program (UNDP).Secretary-general’s play a vital role in ensuring broad regional representation in UN leadership.

(iii) Maintenance of peace/security: The secretary-general’s office oversees peacekeeping missions and appoints the undersecretary in charge of that department, which manages a dozen operations worldwide. He brings to the attention of the security council any matter which, in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of world peace and security

(iv) Appointment of staff and conference: The secretary General play a vital role in appointing of staff and organising of international conference. The secretary general appoints other members of staff under the guidance of the General Assembly. He organises  international conference on problems of world wide concern eg UNICEF

(v) Agenda, Annual Report  and Budget: The Secretary General prepare the agenda for the General Assembly. He makes the annual reports to the General Assembly on the work of the United Nations. The annual budge of the organisation is also prepared by the secretary  General.

(vi) Mediation:  As part of the “good offices” responsibility of the position, the secretary-general practices independence and impartiality to prevent and limit conflict.The secretary-general also appoints envoys charged with brokering peace deals. Such envoys report to the Security Council, and their appointments can be influenced by the preferences of the council’s members.

VERSION TWO (2) ANSWERS










2022 NECO GOVERNMENT (OBJECTIVE) ANSWERS:

1-10: BBCDCBDABA
11-20: EEBCCEBEAA
21-30: BADDAEDDAA
31-40: ACCBADEBDA
41-50: DEDCCBAAEA
51-60: BBEBADCCAA

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