2023 NECO Government (Essay & OBJ) Answers [13th July]
Get Free Live 2023 NECO June/July Government (GOVT) OBJ & THEORY Questions and Answers Free of Charge | NECO June/July Free Government (Objectives and Theory) Questions and Answers EXPO Room (13th July, 2023).

Thursday, 13th July 2023
Government (Objective & Essay)
2:00pm – 4:40pm


NOTE: There are two sections in this Government paper.
Section A (1-4)
Section B (5-10)

You are required to Answer TWO questions only from Section A and THREE questions from Section B.

A state can be defined as a politically organized body of people living within a defined territory, with a recognized government that has the authority to make and enforce laws, maintain order, provide public services, and represent the interests of its citizens both domestically and internationally.

(i) Population: A state consists of a group of people who live within its territorial boundaries. The size and composition of the population can vary significantly among states, but it is a fundamental attribute of any state.

(ii) Territory: A state has a defined geographical area or territory over which it exercises sovereign control. This territory is demarcated by borders, which may be natural features (such as rivers or mountains) or artificially established boundaries.

(iii) Sovereignty: Sovereignty refers to the exclusive authority and power of a state to govern its territory and make decisions without interference from external actors. It implies that a state is politically independent and can determine its own laws, policies, and actions.

(iv) Government: A state has a recognized political system or government that is responsible for the administration of public affairs and the exercise of power. The government may be structured in various ways, such as a democracy, monarchy, or dictatorship, and it typically consists of institutions, officials, and processes for decision-making and governance.

(v) Legitimacy: Legitimacy refers to the acceptance and recognition of the state's authority by its population and the international community. A state's legitimacy may be derived from factors such as the consent of the governed, adherence to the rule of law, respect for human rights, and international recognition. 


(i) Voter Appeal and Ideology: The extent to which a political party's ideology, values, and policy proposals resonate with voters plays a crucial role in electoral success.Parties that can effectively communicate their platform and address voter concerns

(ii) Leadership and Candidate Selection: The leadership qualities, charisma, and credibility of a party's leaders can significantly impact electoral success. A strong and popular leader can inspire trust, attract voters, and rally support for the party.

(iii) Party Organization and Structure: A well-organized and disciplined party with a strong grassroots presence and effective party machinery can mobilize supporters, engage in strategic campaigning, and efficiently manage election-related activities.

(iv) Party Organization and Structure: A well-organized and disciplined party with a strong grassroots presence and effective party machinery can mobilize supporters, engage in strategic campaigning, and efficiently manage election-related activities.

(v) Campaign Strategy and Communication: A well-planned and targeted campaign strategy, including effective messaging, communication channels, and campaign tactics, can greatly influence electoral outcomes.

(vi) Economic and Socio-Political Context: The prevailing economic conditions, social issues, and political climate in a country or region can impact the electoral success of a political party.

(vii) Voter Engagement and Turnout: Ultimately, electoral success depends on voter engagement and turnout. Parties that can effectively mobilize their supporters, engage in voter education and persuasion, and encourage voter participation have a greater likelihood of success.

(i) Lobbying: Lobbying involves direct communication with policymakers, legislators, and government officials to influence their decisions. Pressure groups engage in lobbying by providing information, expertise, and arguments to shape policy discussions and promote their interests. This can be done through personal meetings, written submissions, or public hearings.

(ii) Public Campaigns and Advocacy: Pressure groups often conduct public campaigns to raise awareness, build public support, and influence public opinion on specific issues. This can include organizing rallies, protests, or public demonstrations, utilizing media platforms to disseminate their message, and mobilizing public support through social media or grassroots organizing.

(iii) Litigation and Legal Strategies: Some pressure groups employ legal strategies to achieve their objectives. They may file lawsuits or engage in legal challenges to existing policies or regulations. By utilizing the legal system, pressure groups can seek judicial remedies or influence court decisions to advance their cause.

(iv) Coalition Building: Pressure groups may form coalitions or alliances with other groups that share similar objectives or face common challenges. By pooling resources, expertise, and support, these groups can amplify their collective influence and present a united front to policymakers. Coalition building allows for a broader base of support and increases the chances of achieving shared goals.

(v) Research and Policy Analysis: Pressure groups often conduct research and policy analysis to develop evidence-based arguments in support of their positions. They may commission studies, gather data, or produce reports that highlight the social, economic, or environmental impacts of specific policies or proposed legislation. This research is used to inform policymakers and the public and strengthen the group's advocacy efforts.

(vi) Direct Action and Civil Disobedience: In some cases, pressure groups may resort to direct action or civil disobedience as a means of drawing attention to their cause and putting pressure on decision-makers. This can involve acts such as sit-ins, blockades, boycotts, or acts of civil disobedience. By disrupting normal activities or engaging in nonviolent protest, pressure groups aim to generate media coverage and public support for their demands.


(i)Clear Guidelines and Policies: Develop and communicate clear guidelines and policies that explicitly outline the expectations for non-partisanship among civil servants.These guidelines should emphasize the importance of political neutrality and provide specific examples.

(ii)Political Activity Restrictions: Implement regulations that restrict civil servants from engaging in partisan political activities while on duty or in their official capacity. This can include limitations on participating in political campaigns, endorsing candidates, or engaging in activities that may compromise their impartiality.

(iii)Recruitment and Promotion Based on Merit: Establish transparent and merit-based systems for the recruitment, selection, and promotion of civil servants. Emphasize qualifications, skills, and experience as the primary criteria for hiring and advancement, rather than political connections or affiliations.

(iv)Training and Education: Provide regular training and education programs that focus on non-partisanship and ethical conduct for civil servants. These programs should emphasize the importance of maintaining impartiality in decision-making, avoiding conflicts of interest, and upholding the principles of public service.

(v)Independent Oversight and Accountability: Establish independent oversight mechanisms to monitor and investigate allegations of partisan behavior or misconduct among civil servants. These mechanisms should have the authority to receive and investigate complaints, protect whistleblowers, and take appropriate disciplinary actions when necessary.

(vi)Promote a Culture of Non-Partisanship: Foster a culture within the civil service that values and promotes non-partisanship. This can be achieved through leadership commitment, communication campaigns, and recognition of civil servants who demonstrate a commitment to impartiality.

(vii) Transparent Performance Evaluation: Implement a fair and transparent performance evaluation system that assesses civil servants based on their competence, professionalism, and adherence to non-partisan principles.Provide regular feedback and recognition for exemplary performance. 

(i) Centralized Power: Military rule is characterized by a concentration of power in the hands of the military leadership or a small group of military officials. The military governs with strong hierarchical structures, where decisions are made at the top and implemented down the chain of command.

(ii) Suspension of Civilian Institutions: Military rule often involves the suspension, dissolution, or weakening of civilian institutions, including the legislature, political parties, and the judiciary. The military assumes direct control over governance and policy-making, sidelining civilian authorities.

(iii) Authoritarianism: Military regimes tend to be authoritarian in nature, characterized by strict control, limited political freedoms, and suppression of dissent. Civil liberties, such as freedom of speech, assembly, and the press, are often curtailed, and opposition to the regime is met with repression.

(iv) Limited Accountability: Military rulers are generally not subject to the same levels of accountability and oversight as civilian leaders. They often enjoy immunity from prosecution and have the power to influence or control the judicial system, limiting accountability for their actions.

(v) State of Emergency: Military rule may be established during a state of emergency or as a response to political instability, internal conflict, or perceived threats to national security. The military justifies its intervention as necessary to restore order, stability, or unity within the country.

(vi) Restriction of Political Participation: Military regimes typically restrict political participation by limiting or controlling the formation of political parties, suppressing opposition groups, and tightly controlling elections or excluding them altogether. Political power is consolidated within the military leadership, limiting citizens' ability to participate in decision-making.

(vii) Emphasis on Discipline and Order: Military rule emphasizes discipline and order as core principles for governance. The military aims to establish stability and control through strict enforcement of rules and regulations, often utilizing a top-down command structure and imposing military values on society.

(viii) Economic Control: Military regimes often exert significant control over the economy. They may nationalize industries, control strategic resources, and allocate economic resources according to their priorities. This control over the economy allows military rulers to consolidate power and secure resources for their own interests. 

(i) Political Instability: The crisis led to a period of intense political instability in Western Nigeria and had repercussions at the national level. The factional infighting within the Action Group and the subsequent polarization of political forces contributed to a breakdown of governance, erosion of public trust, and weakened democratic institutions.

(ii) Regional Fragmentation: The crisis deepened divisions within the Western Region along ethnic and regional lines. The split within the Action Group resulted in the formation of factions aligned with different ethnic and regional interests. This fragmentation had long-lasting effects on the political landscape and regional dynamics in Nigeria.

(iii) Curtailment of Democracy: The crisis prompted the intervention of the federal government and the imposition of a state of emergency in the Western Region. This led to the suspension of the regional government and the appointment of an administrator by the federal government, curtailing democratic processes and undermining regional autonomy.

(iv) Ethnoreligious Tensions: The crisis heightened existing ethnic and religious tensions in the Western Region and exacerbated communal conflicts. The political rivalry within the Action Group, combined with ethnocentric narratives, contributed to intergroup rivalries and violence, further polarizing society along ethnic and religious lines.

(v) Weakening of Political Parties: The internal divisions within the Action Group weakened the party's influence and organizational capacity. The crisis exposed factionalism, infighting, and leadership struggles within the party, which led to a loss of public confidence and a decline in the party's political fortunes.

(vi) Erosion of Trust in Political Leaders: The crisis eroded public trust in political leaders and parties, as the actions of key figures within the Action Group were seen as prioritizing personal ambitions and factional interests over the welfare of the people. This loss of trust had far-reaching implications for Nigerian politics and contributed to a broader disillusionment with political elites.

(vii) Impact on Federalism: The crisis had implications for Nigeria's federal structure. The federal government's intervention in the Western Region raised concerns about the balance of power between the federal and regional governments, highlighting tensions between centralized authority and regional autonomy within the federal system.

(viii) Legacy of Violence and Intolerance: The Action Group crisis left a legacy of political violence and intolerance in Nigeria. The escalation of violence, the targeting of political opponents, and the ethnocentric rhetoric deepened divisions and set a precedent for future political conflicts and electoral violence in the country.

(i) National Security: Ensuring the security and protection of Nigerian territory, citizens, and interests is a critical factor in shaping foreign policy. Nigeria's foreign policy decisions are often driven by concerns over regional security, counterterrorism efforts, and cooperation with international partners to combat transnational threats.

(ii) Economic Interests: Economic considerations significantly impact Nigerian foreign policy. Promoting trade, attracting foreign direct investment, securing access to markets and resources, and seeking favorable economic partnerships all influence the country's diplomatic engagements and international agreements.

(iii) Regional Integration: Nigeria is a key player in the West African region. Promoting regional integration, fostering economic cooperation, and addressing common challenges through organizations such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) are important drivers of Nigerian foreign policy.

(iv) Energy Diplomacy: As a major oil-producing country, Nigeria's foreign policy is influenced by energy interests. Ensuring stable oil exports, attracting investment in the energy sector, and engaging with other oil-producing nations and organizations impact Nigeria's diplomatic engagements.

(v) Pan-Africanism and African Solidarity: Nigeria has historically championed the cause of African unity, independence, and decolonization. Promoting peace, stability, and development in Africa, supporting regional conflict resolution efforts, and advocating for African interests on the global stage remain important elements of Nigerian foreign policy.

(vi) Global Governance and Multilateralism: Nigeria actively engages in multilateral organizations, such as the United Nations, African Union, and the Commonwealth, to shape global governance, advocate for international norms and values, and pursue diplomatic initiatives on issues like peacekeeping, human rights, and sustainable development.

(vii) Diaspora Engagement: Nigeria has a large diaspora population spread across the globe. Engaging with the Nigerian diaspora community and leveraging their resources, skills, and influence for the country's development is an important factor that shapes Nigerian foreign policy.

(viii) Historical and Colonial Legacy: Nigeria's colonial history, particularly its experience under British rule, has influenced its foreign policy outlook. The legacy of colonialism, decolonization struggles, and post-colonial relationships continue to shape Nigeria's diplomatic approach, including its stance on issues related to self-determination, sovereignty, and global power dynamics.


(i) Historical Ties: Nigeria's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations can be justified based on historical ties. The Commonwealth provides a platform for maintaining connections and cooperation with other countries that were also once part of the British Empire.

(ii) Shared Values: Nigeria's membership in the Commonwealth is based on shared values such as democracy, the rule of law, human rights, and good governance. The Commonwealth serves as a forum where member countries can collaborate on upholding and promoting these values.

(iii) Economic Cooperation: Nigeria benefits from economic cooperation within the Commonwealth. Membership provides opportunities for trade, investment, and economic partnerships with other member countries.

(iv) Development Assistance: Nigeria can access development assistance and support from the Commonwealth and its member countries. This assistance can be in the form of financial aid, technical expertise, and capacity-building programs .

(v) Cultural Exchange: The Commonwealth offers a platform for cultural exchange and cooperation among member countries. Nigeria's membership allows for the sharing of cultural experiences, traditions, and knowledge with other nations

(vi) Diplomatic Relations: Membership in the Commonwealth enhances Nigeria's diplomatic relations and global standing. It provides opportunities for engagement in multilateral diplomacy, participation in Commonwealth summits, and networking

(vii) Collaboration on Global Issues: Nigeria can collaborate with other Commonwealth members on global issues such as climate change, security, peacekeeping, and health. The Commonwealth can serve as a platform for joint efforts, sharing best practices, and addressing common challenges.

(viii) Youth Empowerment and Education: The Commonwealth offers programs and initiatives focused on youth empowerment, education, and leadership development. Nigeria's membership provides opportunities for Nigerian youth to engage in exchange programs, educational scholarships etc.

Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided and shared between a central authority and constituent units, such as states or provinces. It is a political arrangement that allows for the coexistence of a central government that governs the entire nation or federation as a whole, and regional or local governments that have some degree of autonomy and authority over their respective territories.

(i) Decentralization of power: State creation allows for the decentralization of power from the central government to regional units. This helps in addressing the diverse needs, aspirations, and interests of different regions within the federation, ensuring a more equitable distribution of resources and political representation.

(ii) Efficient governance: By creating smaller states within a federation, it becomes easier to administer and govern specific regions. This can lead to more effective and efficient delivery of public services, as governments can focus on addressing local issues and tailoring policies to the specific needs of the region.

(iii) Regional development: State creation can promote regional development by enabling local governments to have greater control over their resources and economic policies. This allows for targeted development initiatives and the utilization of region-specific advantages, fostering economic growth and reducing regional disparities.

(iv) Cultural and linguistic preservation: In diverse federations, state creation can be a means to protect and preserve the unique cultural, linguistic, and ethnic identities of different regions. By granting them autonomy and self-governance, the federation ensures that diverse cultural expressions and languages are safeguarded.

(v) Political representation: State creation often leads to increased political representation at both the regional and national levels. New states allow for the formation of additional legislative seats, ensuring a more inclusive political system where diverse voices and interests can be heard and represented.

(vi) Efficient resource management: State creation in a federation allows for better management of natural resources. Different regions within a federation may have varying endowments of resources such as minerals, agricultural land, or energy sources. By creating states, the local governments can have more control over these resources, leading to more efficient utilization and management for the benefit of the region and the overall federation.

(vii) Conflict resolution: State creation can serve as a means of resolving conflicts or addressing grievances between different regions within a federation. In cases where there are significant political, ethnic, or socio-economic tensions, creating separate states or autonomous regions can provide a platform for addressing those grievances and promoting peace and stability. By giving regions more control over their own affairs, it can help alleviate feelings of marginalization or underrepresentation, fostering a sense of unity and cooperation within the federation.


(i) Emir/Sarkin: The Emir or Sarkin, as the highest-ranking executive officer, had several duties. They maintained law and order, ensured the administration of justice, and protected the interests of the community.

(ii) District Heads/Wakilin Sarki: District heads, known as Wakilin Sarki, were responsible for the effective governance of their respective districts. They implemented the policies and regulations set by the Emir, collected taxes, maintained security, and oversaw local government administration.

(iii) Court Officials: Court officials played significant roles in the administration of justice. The Wazirin, Galadiman, and Madaki were executive officers who advised the Emir, presided over court proceedings, and ensured the fair and equitable resolution of disputes.

(iv) Military Commanders: Military commanders, such as the Dan Masanin, held executive positions in matters of defense and security. They organized and led military forces, protected the community from external threats, and maintained internal peace.

(v) Military Commanders: Military commanders, such as the Dan Masanin, held executive positions in matters of defense and security. They organized and led military forces, protected the community from external threats, and maintained internal peace.

(vi) Advisers and Counselors: Executive officers in the Hausa/Fulani pre-colonial administration included advisers and counselors who provided expertise and guidance to the Emir. These individuals had specialized knowledge in areas such as religion, law, diplomacy, and administration.

(vii) Village/Local Chiefs: Village or local chiefs, known as Hakimi, acted as executive officers at the grassroots level. They oversaw the governance of their respective villages or communities.



  1. JUST GO OUT AND BUY MTN CARDS OF N600 (200 + 200 + 200 = 600)


NB: Only Share this Page with Trusted Students, We will be hiding this page immediately exam ends and a new page will be created for the upcoming exam. Kindly do well to bookmark the site and check back later.
*******Link Payment Per Subject: N600***** [Gets Answers On Time]
******Link Payment Per Practical: N400***** [Gets Answers On Time]