2024 NABTEB Agric (Essay & OBJ) Answers [29th June]
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NABTEB MAY/JUNE 2024 FREE AGRIC QUESTION AND ANSWER ROOM [NBC/NTC]

Saturday 29th June, 2024
Agricultural Science Paper I (Objective & Essay) 9.00am – 11:30am (2hrs 30mins)

2024 NABTEB AGRIC (THEORY) ANSWERS:

ANSWER FIVE(5) QUESTIONS ONLY
(1a)
(i) Purchase: Buying land from an individual or organization.
(ii) Lease: Renting land for a specific period.
(iii) Gift: Receiving land as a gift or inheritance.
(iv) Government allocation: Obtaining land from the government through various schemes or programs.

(1bi)
(i) Preventing land from being held for speculative purposes.
(ii) Encouraging farming and agricultural practices.
(iii) Maximizing land utilization for economic purposes.
(iv) Resolving conflicts and disputes related to land ownership.

(1bii)
(i) Poor enforcement and implementation of the Act.
(ii) Corruption and lack of transparency in land allocation.
(iii) Insufficient compensation for land acquired from individuals.
(iv) Conflicts with traditional land ownership and management practices.

(1c)
(i) A disc plough is used for primary tillage (breaking up compacted soil), while a harrow is used for secondary tillage (smoothing and leveling the soil).
(ii) A disc plough has concave discs that cut and turn the soil, while a harrow has a series of tines or spikes that smooth and level the soil.

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(2a)
(i) Mineral particles (45%): Sand, silt, and clay
(ii) Organic matter (5%): Decaying plant and animal residues
(iii) Water (25%): Varies depending on soil moisture
(iv) Air (25%): Varies depending on soil aeration


(2bi)
(i) Water holding capacity: Affects soil moisture availability for plants.
(ii) Nutrient availability: Influences nutrient uptake and availability.
(iii) Root growth: Impacts root development and plant establishment.
(iv) Erosion resistance: Affects soil susceptibility to erosion.


(2bii)
Soil texture refers to the proportion of sand, silt, and clay particles WHILE Soil structure refers to the arrangement and organization of these particles, forming aggregates and pore spaces.

(2ci)
(i) High rainfall: Leaches basic nutrients, increasing acidity.
(ii) Organic matter decomposition: Releases acidic compounds.
(iii) Fertilizer use: Certain fertilizers, like ammonium sulfate, acidify soil.

(2cii)
(i) Reduced nutrient availability: Decreases plant growth and yield.
(ii) Toxicity: Excessive aluminum and manganese can harm plants.
(iii) Increased disease susceptibility: Acidic conditions favor disease development.

(2ciii) Liming:
Liming is the application of materials like limestone or dolomite to neutralize soil acidity and raise the pH.
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(3)
[TABULATE]

=UNDER YAM=
Botanical Name:
Dioscorea spp.

Method of Preparation:
Planting tubers

Period of Maturity:
8-12 months

Disease:
Yam mosaic virus
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

=UNDER RICE=
Botanical Name:
Oryza sativa

Method of Preparation:
Sowing seeds

Period of Maturity:
3-6 months

Disease:
Rice blast
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

=UNDER COCOA=
Botanical Name:
Theobroma cacao

Method of Preparation:
Planting seedlings

Period of Maturity:
3-5 years

Disease:
Black pod disease
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

=UNDER OIL PALM=
Botanical Name:
Elaeis guineensis

Method of Preparation:
Planting seedlings

Period of Maturity:
3-5 years

Disease:
Bud rot


(3b)
(i) Cowpeas
(ii) Beans
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(4a)
(i) Crop diversity: Include a variety of crops to break disease and pest cycles.
(ii) Crop sequence: Arrange crops in a sequence that benefits soil fertility and structure.
(iii) Soil fertility management: Use crops that add organic matter, fix nitrogen, or reduce soil erosion.
(iv) Pest and disease management: Include crops that repel or trap pests, or those with different disease susceptibility.

(4b)
[TABULATE]

=YEAR 1: Cowpea| Maize| Cassava| Yam|

=YEAR 2: Yam| Cowpea| Maize| Cassava|

=YEAR 3: Maize| Cassava| Yam| Cowpea|

=YEAR 4: Cassava| Yam| Cowpea| Maize|


(4ci)
(i) Aggressive growth: Weeds outcompete crops for resources.
(ii) High reproductive capacity: Weeds produce many seeds or vegetative propagules.
(iii) Adaptability: Weeds thrive in various environments and conditions.
(iv) Competition: Weeds compete with crops for water, light, and nutrients.

(4cii)
Afforestation is the process of planting trees in a barren or deforested area where there was no previous tree cover to create a forest. This practice aims to establish a forested area on land that has not recently been forested, contrasting with reforestation, which involves replanting trees in a deforested area.
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(5a)
(i) Tattooing: A permanent identification method where numbers or letters are inserted into an animal's ear using a tattoo machine, helping to identify animals in a herd or flock.

(ii) Ear notching: A method of identification where small notches are made in an animal's ear, representing a specific code or number, used for identification purposes.

(iii) Branding: A method of identification where a hot iron or freeze brand is used to leave a permanent mark on an animal's skin, typically on the hide or horn, to indicate ownership or identity.

(5b)
Maintenance ration is a diet that provides nutrients to maintain an animal's current body weight and condition, with no intention of growth or production While Production ration is a diet designed to support animal growth, lactation, or reproduction, providing extra nutrients to support increased productivity.

(5c)
(i) Catch limits: Restrictions on the amount of fish that can be caught.
(ii) Closed seasons: Times when fishing is not allowed to protect fish during breeding or spawning.
(iii) Gear restrictions: Regulations on fishing gear to prevent bycatch or habitat damage.
(iv) Marine protected areas: Areas closed to fishing to protect habitats or species.
(v) Permits and licenses: Requirements for fishermen to operate legally.
(vi) Size limits: Minimum sizes for fish to be kept, to protect juvenile fish.

(5d)
(i) Improved animal safety: Reduces risk of injury from horns.
(ii) Reduced damage: Less damage to facilities, equipment, and other animals.
(iii) Easier handling: Dehorned animals are often easier to handle and manage.
(iv) Increased human safety: Reduces risk of injury to humans from horned animals.
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(6a)
(i) Farm diary: A record of daily farm activities, helping farmers track progress, identify patterns, and make informed decisions.

(ii) Farm inventory: A comprehensive list of farm assets, enabling farmers to manage resources, track inventory levels, and make informed purchasing decisions.

(iii) Input record: A record of inputs used on the farm, such as seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides, helping farmers track costs, optimize usage, and reduce waste.

(iv) Production record: A record of farm output, including yields, quality, and sales, enabling farmers to evaluate performance, identify areas for improvement, and make data-driven decisions.

(6bi)
Farm and Home Visit
(i) Personalized Advice
(ii) Building Relationships

(6bii)
Result Demonstration
(i) Visual Evidence
(ii) Engagement and Learning

(6biii)
Method Demonstration
(i) Hands-on Learning
(ii) Immediate Feedback

(6c)
(i) Radio: Wide reach, especially in rural areas.
(ii) Television: Visual demonstrations and presentations.
(iii) Newspapers: Printed reference materials.
(iv) Social media: Real-time information and connectivity.
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(7a)
(i) Wear protective clothing: Beekeepers should wear veils, gloves, and suits to prevent stings.
(ii) Handle bees gently: Bees should be handled carefully to avoid injuring them and causing them to become aggressive.
(iii) Avoid sudden movements: Sudden movements can alarm bees and cause them to become aggressive.
(iv) Keep apiaries clean: Apiaries should be kept clean and free of debris to prevent disease and pests.

(7b)
(i) Water source: A reliable water source is essential for filling and maintaining the pond.
(ii) Topography: The site should be level and have good drainage to prevent waterlogging.
(iii) Soil type: The soil should be able to hold water and not be prone to erosion.
(iv) Climate: The site should have adequate sunlight and shade to promote healthy fish growth.

(7c)
(i) Freezing
(ii) Canning
(iii) Smoking
(iv) Drying
(v) Pickling
(vi) Fermenting

(7d)
(i) Catch limits: Regulations on the amount of fish that can be caught to prevent overfishing.
(ii) Closed seasons: Regulations on when fishing is not allowed to protect fish during breeding or spawning.
(iii) Gear restrictions: Regulations on the types of fishing gear that can be used to prevent bycatch or habitat damage.
(iv) Size limits: Regulations on the minimum size of fish that can be caught to protect juvenile fish.
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2024 NABTEB AGRIC OBJECTIVES (OBJ) ANSWERS

1-10: CDADCCBABB
11-20: CBCBDBDCAA
21-30: DBCCBADBDB
31-40: BABCCABDCC
41-50: ACBCCBCDDC


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